NetTest CMA5000 multi-layer network test platform

  In a rapidly changing environment, adaptability is the key to success. In the extremely competitive communication market, it is very important to deploy new services quickly and meet customer needs in time. NetTest is one of the few companies active in all major network technology fields. NetTest has the experience and professionals to develop test and measurement solutions, which can fully meet your current and future needs. From DWDM, SONET/SDH and Gigabit Ethernet testing to dispersion and OTDR measurement, CMA5000 is an ideal solution. In addition to unparalleled flexibility and scalability, CMA5000′ s high-performance measurement application can also install, open and archive the network more effectively, thus accelerating the deployment of new services. From physical layer, data link layer, network layer to transport layer, CMA5000 provides a real multi-layer network testing solution.

  CMA5000 is the first high-performance and scalable test and measurement solution in the industry, which can meet the demanding requirements of communication professionals, accelerate the opening of new services and reduce the overall measurement cost.

   CMA5000′ s open structure design, powerful functions and modular platform can provide the highest performance measurement application, which can help users analyze and open the network faster than competitors and start making profits earlier. In addition, the configuration flexibility and expansibility of CMA5000 enable it to be improved with the change of users’ test requirements and the constant change of telecom infrastructure technical requirements.

  I. Analysis of Physical Layer Characteristics

CMA5000 continues NetTest’s long-term leading position in the field of optical fiber and network characteristic analysis. CMA5000 OTDR application provides a dynamic range of over 50 dB, and can obtain the required OTDR test information on any link in a few seconds.

  Providing the best OTDR performance is only a good beginning. In the process of comprehensive analysis of physical layer media characteristics, the function and scalability of CMA5000 platform are particularly prominent. Combined with the best OTDR in the industry, CMA5000 can provide all the test applications needed for perfect physical medium characteristic analysis, including:

chromatic dispersion

Polarization mode dispersion

Visible fault locator


Optical return loss

Visual detection probe (for connector inspection)

Loss tester

Second, the DWDM network equipment installation

  With the beginning of network installation, the final delivery deadline is approaching day by day, and time is of the essence. During the equipment installation, CMA5000 can help you complete the task correctly once, which speeds up the deployment of the network. With the intuitive display of information including channel wavelength (or frequency) and power, OSNR and system gain slope, the application of spectral analysis (OSA) and optical channel analysis (OCA) provides accurate and efficient network channel management, power balance and adjustment.

  In addition to the industry-leading OSA and OCA performance, CMA5000 also provides a visual inspection probe (VIP) to verify the connector quality, and the optical power meter is used to measure the power of a single channel or the overall system power. When used with high power amplifiers and pump lasers, safety is the key. VIP provides a safe and reliable method for inspecting, evaluating and recording the end face condition of connectors, thus avoiding potential dangerous situations.

  Whether testing transmitter, amplifier, receiver or other optical devices, CMA5000 OSA, OCA, visual detection probe and optical power meter all provide the required performance for the rapid installation of network equipment.

Third, the network is opened

  Today’s competitive environment requires the network to provide extremely high performance and reliability, ensuring that the failure time is minimized. CMA5000 is once again your best choice for characteristic analysis and archiving under such strict performance level requirements. The application of optical transmission analysis (OTA) provides efficient and reliable testing for many parameters, including alarm and error code analysis, APS with 125 μs resolution, round-trip delay measurement with 100 ns resolution, and network availability and performance evaluation. OTA application can analyze the characteristics of PDH/T-carriers to SONET/SDH with a speed of up to 10 GB/s. In addition, OTA’s innovative fault scanning function can automatically detect problems, so as to quickly identify and correct network damage and ensure that the network meets your and your customers’ expectations.

Fourth, business deployment

  When the network construction is about to be completed, customers will be eager to deploy new services. At this time, time is of the essence. CMA5000 Gigabit Ethernet application can help you meet the challenge and ensure that key parameters including throughput, delay, frame rate, lost frames, etc. (see RFC 2544 for details) are met, thus accelerating business deployment. In addition, the measurement of error code at the frame level and the comprehensive IP statistics function enable CMA5000 to provide key layer 2 QoS information. Gigabit Ethernet test application provides the required performance for the installation, maintenance and fault location of Ethernet network based on 10/100/1000 Mbps with its unparalleled high efficiency and ease of use.

  The flexible and extensible design of CMA5000 integrated test platform integrates the best functions of each test application, which accelerates business deployment, reduces measurement costs and optimizes bandwidth.

V. Summary

  The following are just some of the tests conducted by NetTest to ensure the optimal performance of all network layers:

1 transport layer

Protocol analysis


Channel usage

Performance and load

2 Network layer

· IP QoS

· RFC-2544

· SLA verification

3 data link layer

· 10/100/1000 Ethernet

Ethernet based on SONE/ISDN


Error code


Sudden ability

Lost package

Frame loss

4 Physical layer (upper layer) DWDM and SONET/SDH


Channel signal-to-noise ratio and drift

Power measurement

Error code

Automatic protection switching

Propagation delay

5 Physical layer (lower layer) medium


· CD


End-to-end attenuation

Optical return loss

Visible fault location

Inspection of connector

Optical telephone

Optical switch

The subsidy of 10 billion yuan is 2,193 yuan: Xiaomi’s second-generation sweeping robot JD.COM has a subsidy of 10 billion yuan (the listing price is 3,499 yuan).

  Xiaomi Mijia Universal Sweeping Robot 2 was put on sale in mid-August last year, with an official price of 3,499 yuan.

  Today, JD.COM’s self-operated subsidy of 10 billion yuan has dropped to 2,202 yuan. After the reduction of PLUS members, it only needs 2,202 yuan, supporting the service of "buy twice as much as you pay" and limiting the purchase of one order:

  According to reports, compared with the original model, this product has been upgraded with "automatic water supply and drainage 2.0" (the original model does not support water supply and drainage), wide-area structured light obstacle avoidance, support for "automatic addition of detergent", upgrade from 2.5L to 4L large-capacity water tank, upgrade the suction from 4000Pa to 6000Pa, and support for "twisting and rubbing" and four cleaning modes.

  This mopping robot supports first sweeping and then dragging, mop self-cleaning+automatic air drying, mop automatic lifting, automatic dust collection, LDS laser navigation, intelligent linkage of the whole house and so on.

Six questions about mobile phone traffic: where did my traffic go?

  "I went to the business hall on Saturday and found that nine out of ten were asking: Where did the traffic go?" Liu Qicheng, a well-known communication expert, lamented in a circle of friends. This is just a microcosm. According to the data of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, in April this year, the average mobile Internet access traffic reached 3.41GB, a year-on-year increase of 154%. Traffic consumption has long been commonplace and has become the focus of everyone’s mobile phone package. But at the same time, there are also various questions about mobile phone traffic from consumers: Why do you buy more traffic, but my traffic is getting less and less? Why do you send me so much local traffic when I don’t need it at all? There are so many set meals, why isn’t there my dish?

  1 Why do I buy more and more traffic, and my traffic is getting insufficient?

  "The original G was enough for one month, but now it is not enough for 15 days." Many people around are complaining that the mobile phone traffic is not enough, and even many people begin to question the "abnormal consumption" of mobile phone traffic. Some netizens complained on Weibo that they got up in the afternoon and ran away with 19.46GB of traffic. And this abnormal situation is not uncommon. "Stealing traffic" has become a hot word on the Internet. So who stole your traffic?

  Pei Zhiyong, the chief anti-fraud expert of 360, told the Beijing Morning Post that mobile phone traffic is indeed "running fast" now. The first reason is the change in the usage habits of mobile phone users. In the past, we mainly used text to surf the Internet on mobile phones, and the pictures were often compressed very little. Now, pictures, texts and videos are very popular, and often one picture is four or five megabytes, not to mention all kinds of small videos, which will definitely consume more traffic objectively. In particular, mobile phones are heavily used, and when they stay on social software for a long time, videos that are inadvertently clicked will be quietly downloaded to the mobile phone. Secondly, many softwares run silently in the background even if they are not opened, and even update quietly without your knowledge, which also eats up a lot of traffic. For example, he said that the child had just played Plants vs Zombies, and every time an advertisement popped up, he clicked, and as a result, he unconsciously downloaded a lot of software. There is also an abnormal situation in which illegal software steals traffic.

  Fiberhome Lab of 360 Internet Security Center has previously discovered a brush cheating Trojan named StealthBot, which adopts a self-hiding method and a mature simulation click process. Like a batch of invisible robots produced by an automatic factory assembly line, it disguises itself as a system service notification, consumes users’ data traffic through startup modes such as automatic operation and external wake-up, and can automatically update and load the latest version of malicious plug-ins in response to instructions issued by the server. Some user groups with weak security awareness and mobile phone brands with poor security have become the areas with the highest occurrence rate of StealthBot. This only exposes the tip of the iceberg where black traffic is rampant.

  In fact, the era of "not turning off 4G traffic, waking up and moving the house" has long passed. Others question that operators "steal traffic", but this statement is obviously unfounded. Fu Liang, a telecom analyst, believes that it may not be worth the loss for operators to modify the user traffic data. Assuming that operators want to "black" the user traffic, the cost required to transform the system is more than the income brought by stealing traffic.

  It has been reported that in order to verify the accuracy of traffic measurement by operators, the test results of communication traffic detection conducted by Zhejiang Quality Supervision Bureau and Zhejiang Institute of Metrology showed that SIM cards of three major operators were randomly inserted into three multi-standard wireless communication internet traffic monitors, and the same file was downloaded. The number of repeated tests was 10 times, and the deviation values of traffic detection data were all 0.1% to 0.15%. From the comparison of the test results, there is almost no difference from the traffic statistics provided by operators, so the statement that operators adjust their calculation methods to "steal traffic" is not valid.

  Why is there so much local traffic, but we can only watch the national traffic run out first?

  As a patient with severe dependence on mobile phones, Xiao Guo often travels abroad. A package she ordered has 1GB of national traffic, and the operator will also give away 3GB of local traffic. But she found that the national traffic was the first to be consumed, while the local traffic as high as 3GB could not be used. "Why can’t you take the lead in using local traffic when you are in Beijing?" Some users also ridiculed that they received a large amount of traffic from operators at the end of the month, but there was no time to use it.

  In fact, there are many people like Xiao Guo who "the national traffic is not enough and the local traffic is bursting". However, because the operator sets the priority of national traffic use, the priority of off-package gift traffic is lower than that of in-package traffic. That is to say, use the traffic in the package first, and then the traffic in the package is used up, and the donated traffic can come in handy. However, this embarrassment will soon be a thing of the past, because from July 1 ST, the roaming charges will be completely cancelled, and no distinction will be made between the province, the province/local and the whole country.

  The Beijing Morning Post reporter noticed that operators often give users a gift of traffic and often launch some promotional activities to grab traffic. However, some insiders pointed out that in fact, for the current traffic giving method, the given traffic often returns to the original road, and the user perception is not strong. Since it’s a gift, why not just be generous? Xiang Ligang, a telecom observer, pointed out that giving away traffic is more of an operator’s market strategy to attract users. However, I believe that after the cancellation of traffic roaming charges, operators may not be so "heroic".

  3 Say good unlimited package, why speed limit?

  Operators have been clamoring for "unlimited packages" recently, but it has attracted many consumers’ doubts: after exceeding 20G, they will be slowed down and returned to the 3G era, or even the 2G era, and they will be directly stopped after using more than 100G G. Netizens have complained that the Huimin package has hidden routines and operators lack sincerity.

  However, in the industry’s view, it is understandable for operators to limit the speed of unlimited traffic packages, which takes care of the choice of most 4G users to use the network fairly.

  Ceng Jianqiu, a professor at Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, pointed out that under the current network conditions, it is difficult for operators to achieve real traffic without capping. Due to the limited bandwidth of the mobile network, it is likely to cause network congestion if multiple users continue to occupy it at high speed at the same time. Previously, AT&T, an American telecom giant, had launched a package with unlimited traffic and speed, but the result was stopped because the network could not bear it.

  Speed limit is a popular international practice at present, with stepped design — — First, meet the maximum network speed promised by the vast majority of users. After reaching the speed limit, the network speed will drop.

  Now, if the operator really does not limit the speed, what will happen? As you can imagine, many people turn it into a WiFi hotspot for many people to use together, and then the network will be overwhelmed and the internet speed will become "turtle speed". This obviously deviates from the original intention of operators and consumers.

  4 why can’t the inexhaustible phone bill be converted into traffic?

  Consumer Mr. Li calculated an account for the Beijing Morning Post reporter. He is currently ordering a package of 158 yuan from an operator, with 6G of national traffic per month and 700 minutes of talk time. In actual use, the internet traffic is much used, and the traffic is often not enough every month, but most of the call duration is left. "Can the inexhaustible phone bill be automatically converted into traffic?"

  In fact, this conversion model has long been tried by operators. In 2016, China Telecom took the lead in raising the banner of "full flow billing".

  In September, 2016, China Telecom Shandong Branch launched a new mode of full traffic charging, which converted voice and SMS into traffic for charging, and voice and traffic can be converted freely. Among them, 1M is equal to 1 minute, and how much M traffic will be deducted for how many minutes you make a phone call, and there will be no balance of call duration in the package. At the same time, the "domestic traffic" in the package can be converted into "domestic calls". In addition, some other local companies of China Telecom have also tried the water. However, Beijing has not yet been realized.

  In addition, China Mobile also plans to pilot the unit price charging model of flow ladder in some cities.

  However, this model is not popular at present. In Xiang Ligang’s view, full flow billing is technically not difficult, but operators have invested a lot in changing the billing system. Most importantly, with the coming of 5G, the operator’s billing system may be reshaped, so the operator does not have much enthusiasm at present.

  5 why can’t I combine freely, and my package is my decision?

  As a senior mobile phone user, retired worker Lao Li’s confusion is that there are so many packages of operators that people are dazzled, but none of them are my dishes. The ideal model is that I provide the monthly consumption demand, and then the operator tailors the most suitable package.

  Obviously, the tariff that Lao Li wants is a "private subscription" model. In fact, operators have similar schemes. For example, as early as 2013, China Telecom launched a nationwide unified customer-selected tariff scheme — — Building block package. In order to help customers match "building blocks", China Telecom has provided many humanized auxiliary tools, such as flow calculator and flow application examples. The building block package consists of four "building blocks": voice, traffic, SMS and 3G applications. Customers can mix and match freely according to their own consumption needs, and change the package as needed at any time.

  China Mobile and China Unicom also have similar "building block packages", which are designed to freely match voice calls and Internet traffic. However, the space for users to choose is still limited. For example, open the client of an operator and find the package calculator, which recommends the appropriate package according to your consumption and use in recent months, but the minimum recommended voice is 18, which obviously cannot meet the needs of Lao Li’s DIY. Therefore, this service has not achieved real success and popularization in the three major operators.

  Ma Jihua, a senior telecom analyst, pointed out that after years of development, telecom operators are constantly innovating and the package system is huge, which can not only confuse customers, but even business people themselves don’t quite understand it. In this case, it is easy to cause the external performance of price opacity, giving users the feeling that they are being fooled. Packaging consumption allows users to enjoy more affordable prices than single accumulation, but many people have no demand for some additional parts and often feel forced to spend. Even if you use it for free, you still feel uncomfortable.

  6 Why do new and old users treat each other differently?

  With the deepening of speed-up and fee reduction, new mobile phone tariff schemes emerge one after another. Every season, operators will try their best to introduce new selling points to attract users. For example, campus promotion large-flow packages, such as mobile broadband bundled fusion packages. But many new packages that look beautiful are only for new users, and old users are blocked out.

  For example, the unlimited card of Beijing Mobile 68 yuan is only for new users. The most favorable unlimited traffic package that old users can choose is 98 yuan/month, which contains 150 minutes of voice and 20G of domestic traffic. After the traffic is exhausted, the speed limit of surfing the Internet is up to 1Mbps. After the accumulated traffic in the month exceeds 100G, you can continue surfing the Internet, but the speed limit is 128Kbps. Beijing Telecom’s 65 yuan Convergence Package is only for new users, and it needs to be paid for two years.

  It has been a fact for many years that there is a certain gap between operators’ care for old users. Why should new and old users be treated differently? Some operators have no choice but to complain that the market is getting saturated and the growth rate of users is slowing down, and the purpose of many promotions is to grab passengers, so the promotion is strong. However, old users enjoyed the preferential scheme at that time when they accessed the network.

  In November last year, because of the problem of old users switching to Internet packages, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology called on telecom operators to provide convenience for old users to change packages, and not to introduce plans to restrict old users from choosing tariffs, and asked enterprises to sort out and investigate existing tariff plans. If there is any behavior that restricts users’ tariff options, it will be rectified immediately.

  Fu Liang, a telecom analyst, believes that the ideal way is to operate a user from the moment the user enters the door, so that users can feel cheaper and cheaper tariffs and better and better services, instead of attracting users with high preferential policies and then letting them go. In his view, it is still common that old packages are not upgraded or old users still need to take the initiative to apply for outdated tariffs.

  However, in the context of market saturation, "please" old users is the cornerstone of building stability. In particular, port number transfer will be fully implemented in 2020, and it is time for operators to be nice to old users.

  ■ Link

  Tips for saving mobile phone traffic

  Although the traffic charges are getting cheaper and cheaper, many small partners exclaim that the traffic charges are increasing. Especially at the end of each month, the traffic is shy. In fact, there are many tips to save traffic and prevent it from sneaking away.

  1. Download applications through formal channels.

  Applications downloaded from the third-party software market are risky, and some illegal software will steal traffic. Therefore, friends should try their best to download applications in formal channels, such as the mobile phone manufacturer’s own app store, official website, etc., so as to avoid accidentally installing traffic-brushing software.

  2. Turn off the automatic synchronization function

  Turning on the automatic synchronization function of the mobile phone will consume a lot of traffic in the background without your attention, so it is best to turn off the automatic synchronization function or choose to synchronize only under the WiFi network.

  3. Close the background running program.

  Many times when we close an application, we return to the desktop directly. If there are too many internet-connected apps in the background, when they are on standby, they may constantly refresh and access data. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the habit of closing and cleaning up the background operation of apps in time, leaving only the software that needs to be online all the time. This can also improve the running speed of the mobile phone to a certain extent. Nowadays, many mobile phones provide a shortcut to close the application with one button.

  4. Turn off the mobile data of the mobile phone

  When not surfing the Internet or using WiFi, remember to turn off the mobile phone to move data, which can fundamentally prevent the background program from consuming traffic. Especially in the environment with WiFi, although the system will give priority to WiFi, it will automatically switch to mobile data under special circumstances or when the signal is bad.

  5. Restrict the Internet connection of large customers who eat traffic.

  Apple Edition: Open Settings → Cellular mobile network can query the situation of traffic consumption, thus limiting the networking of designated applications.

  Android version: Open the security center in the mobile phone settings, and you can query the traffic consumption of each application, thus restricting the designated applications from connecting to the Internet.

  In fact, the most popular apps are several commonly used apps, which can be found in the data traffic usage of mobile phones. Generally, WeChat, QQ, browsers and game software are all big traffic users. Some measures can be taken, such as: WeChat friends circle small video opens the automatic playback setting in WiFi-only environment; Try to use compressed photos when drying photos in your circle of friends; Try to communicate in pure text, and send less emoticons, voices and short videos; Don’t click on links, short videos, photos, etc.

  6, set the daily flow limit

  It is suggested that the monthly traffic usage limit or early warning should be set in the [Security Center] in the mobile phone settings, so as to find out the abnormal traffic consumption in time.

  7. Pay attention to the application scope of directional flow.

  At present, operators and major Internet companies have launched a number of targeted packages, such as Tencent King Card swiping WeChat, watching Tencent videos and playing the glory of the king, which are free of charge. However, if you occasionally brush a Weibo and send a Tik Tok, you will have to pay an extra traffic fee. When ordering these packages, pay attention to their limited scope.

  8. Multi-operator wool

  At present, operators often launch some activities such as traffic giving, lottery, special offer, etc. on many holidays, and pay attention to official platforms such as operators’ clients, public accounts and Weibo, which are often hit by free traffic. For example, Beijing Mobile client has a regular activity of signing in to send traffic, and can get a total of 160M traffic coupons for free every month. And Beijing telecom can get a total of 300M traffic when signing in.

  Reporter Jiao Likun

Hot search exploded! Well-known online celebrity suddenly declared terminal cancer.


Online celebrity Ti mo Feng with millions of fans.

According to an interview,

I stopped broadcasting for half a year.

Because of thyroid cancer,

Has entered the advanced stage.

Related topics also set off a hot search in Weibo.

In order not to worry everyone, she didn’t tell her parents and fans, hoping that she would be in better health before revealing it. Because the thyroid tumor is close to the vocal cords and laryngeal nerve, her voice was hoarse after the operation, which was simply "the sky collapsed" for her. Later, after continuous efforts, her voice was restored.

On the evening of July 24th, Ti mo Feng wrote a response to this matter: "Thyroid cancer was indeed diagnosed before. The operation has been done and it was a success. Now my body has recovered, and my voice has recovered almost under my unremitting efforts! "

"Through this cancer, I want to tell everyone, especially the girls: don’t be mentally consumed, don’t squeeze negative energy into your heart, communicate with your family and friends more, and be brave to speak out and take legal weapons to protect yourself when you encounter cyber violence and slander."

Ti mo Feng, whose real name is Feng Yanan, was born in Wanzhou District, Chongqing on December 19th, 1991. She is a female singer and network anchor in China. She debuted from a live broadcast platform, and later attracted the attention of netizens because of her sweet singing voice. She once became a live broadcast sister on the platform and participated in many variety shows.

In 2017, she released her first single; In 2019, Ti mo Feng opened his own solo concert, released his own album of the same name, and then appeared in TV variety shows and parties many times. In February this year, Ti mo Feng also released a new single.

According to published data, thyroid cancer is the most common thyroid malignant tumor, including papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma and medullary carcinoma.

There are no obvious symptoms and signs in the early stage, and small thyroid masses are usually found by thyroid palpation and neck ultrasound examination during physical examination.

In the late stage, it may cause Horner syndrome caused by hoarseness, dysphagia, sympathetic nerve compression, pain in ears, pillows, shoulders, local lymph nodes and distant organ metastasis.

Compared with other malignant tumors, the malignant degree of thyroid cancer is relatively low, and the overall prognosis is relatively good, but its prognosis is closely related to the pathological classification of thyroid cancer. More than 90% of patients belong to papillary thyroid cancer, and their malignant degree is low. Early surgical treatment can obviously reduce the probability of recurrence and metastasis.

After hearing the news that Ti mo Feng was ill and suffering from cancer, netizens said: "Good self-cultivation, health is the most important thing", "Early recovery, happiness is the most important thing" and "Thyroid cancer is a lucky thing in misfortune".

* light up [watching] to remind people around you! Maintain a healthy lifestyle and have a regular physical examination!

Original title: "Hot search burst! Well-known online celebrity suddenly announced terminal cancer.

Read the original text

How to connect Huawei freebuds4i to a mobile phone How to connect Huawei freebuds4i to a mobile phone [Detailed explanation]

  Huawei freebuds4i is an excellent Bluetooth headset, which adopts the advantages of active noise reduction technology, pure sound quality and long battery life, and is deeply loved by many users. However, Huawei freebuds4i needs to be connected before it can be used normally. The following small series brings you several connection methods.

  Huawei freebuds4i Pairing Tutorial Sharing

  Method 1: Manual pairing connection:

  1. Put the earphone into the charging box. When the charging box is open, press and hold the function button of the charging box for 2 seconds, and the indicator light in the box will start flashing white, so that the earphone can be paired.

  2. Turn on the Bluetooth of the mobile phone and search for a pairing device. The name of the Bluetooth headset (HUAWEI FreeBuds 4i) will be searched, and click to pair.

  Headphones support button-free pairing when opening the box for the first time: when you use it for the first time, open the charging box cover, wait for about 2 seconds, and it will automatically turn on and enter the pairing state, at which time the white light flashes.

  Method 2: Manual pairing connection:

  1. Put the earphone into the charging box. When the charging box is open, press and hold the function key for 2 seconds, the indicator light will start flashing white, and the earphone will enter the pairing state.

  2. Turn on the Bluetooth of the mobile phone, and a self-discovery pop-up box with the name and picture of the headset appears on the mobile phone. Click [Connect] to connect with the headset.

  When it is used again, the earphone is opened, and after the connection is successful, the mobile phone automatically pops up the pop-up box to display the power of the earphone and the box. (Need to cooperate with e Huawei mobile phone/tablet)

  Method 3: Smart Life APP Connection:

  1. Put the earphone into the charging box. When the charging box is open, press and hold the function key for 2 seconds, the indicator light will start flashing white, and the earphone will enter the pairing state.

  2. After the mobile phone turns on WLAN, Bluetooth and location services, click the "+"button in the upper right corner of Smart Life APP, and click [Add Device] to scan the device and add it.

The State Council Information Office held a press conference on recent investment, finance and financial related data and policies.

The State Council Press Office held a press conference at 10: 00 am on Thursday, March 21st, 2024, and invited Liu Sushe, deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission, Liao Min, vice minister of finance, and Xuan Chang, deputy governor of the People’s Bank of China, to introduce recent investment, finance and financial related data and policies, and to answer reporters’ questions.

The picture shows the press conference. (photo by Liu Jian)

Shou Xiaoli, deputy director and spokesperson of the State Council Information Office:

Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Welcome to the press conference of the State Council Information Office. Today, we are very pleased to invite Mr. Liu Sushe, deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission, Mr. Liao Min, vice minister of finance, and Mr. Xuan Changneng, deputy governor of the People’s Bank of China, and ask them to introduce the recent investment, finance and financial related data and policies and answer your concerns.

Now, first of all, please let Mr. Liu Sushe make an introduction.

Liu Sushe, Deputy Director of the National Development and Reform Commission:

Good morning, journalists and friends! I am very happy to attend today’s press conference. I would like to take this opportunity to thank journalists and friends for their concern and support for development and reform.

The picture shows Liu Sushe, deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission. (photo by Xu Xiang)

Let me first introduce the recent investment situation. Since the beginning of this year, the National Development and Reform Commission, together with relevant parties, has conscientiously implemented the deployment of the Central Economic Work Conference and the Government Work Report, given full play to the driving amplification effect of government investment, actively supported social capital to participate in major project construction, and made efforts to expand effective investment. From January to February, the national fixed asset investment increased by 4.2% year-on-year, and the growth rate was 1.2 percentage points faster than last year. After deducting the investment in real estate development, the overall investment increased by 8.9%, achieving a smooth start. Mainly presents the following highlights:

First, the growth rate of manufacturing investment has accelerated. From January to February, the investment in manufacturing industry increased by 9.4%, 2.9 percentage points faster than last year and 5.2 percentage points higher than the total investment. The investment in technological transformation of manufacturing industry increased by 15.1%, and the growth rate was 5.7 percentage points higher than that of all manufacturing investment.

Second, the growth momentum of new kinetic energy investment is good. From January to February, investment in high-tech industries increased by 9.4%, including investment in high-tech manufacturing by 10% and investment in high-tech service by 7.8%. Among them, the investment in electronic and communication equipment manufacturing increased by 11.6%, and the investment in aviation, spacecraft and equipment manufacturing increased by 33.1%.

Third, the proportion of private investment in the overall investment has rebounded. From January to February, private investment accounted for 52.6% of the total investment, 2.2 percentage points higher than last year. Private investment increased by 0.4%, reversing the negative growth since the first five months of last year; Among them, private investment in manufacturing and infrastructure increased by 11.6% and 7.9% respectively.

Fourth, infrastructure investment has played an effective supporting role. From January to February, infrastructure investment increased by 6.3%, 0.4 percentage points faster than last year. Among them, the investment in water conservancy management increased by 13.7%, the investment in railway and road transportation increased by 27% and 8.3% respectively, and the policy benefits such as issuing additional national debt in 2023 are gradually emerging.

In the next step, the National Development and Reform Commission will make good use of policy tools such as investment in the central budget, ultra-long-term special government bonds and special bonds of local governments, speed up the review of special bond projects of local governments, and give full play to the guiding role of government investment; Implement a new mechanism of cooperation between government and social capital to mobilize the enthusiasm of private investment; Promote scientific and technological innovation and the development of emerging industries, accelerate the new urbanization based on people, and expand the space for effective investment in many ways; We will promote steady growth of investment and continuous optimization of the structure throughout the year, give full play to the key role of investment in optimizing the supply structure, and promote sustained economic recovery and long-term improvement. thank you

Shou Xiaoli:

Thank you, Deputy Director Liu Sushe, for your introduction. Next, please introduce Mr. Liao Min.

Vice Minister of Finance Liao Min:

Good morning, ladies and gentlemen, friends from old and new journalists. I am very happy to attend today’s press conference and take this opportunity to thank you for your long-term support and concern for financial work. Below, I will inform you about the financial operation from January to February from two aspects: revenue and expenditure. Generally speaking, the income continues to grow, while the expenditure is ahead.

The picture shows Vice Minister of Finance Liao Min. (photo by Xu Xiang)

First, the fiscal revenue continued to recover and started smoothly. From January to February this year, the national general public budget revenue was 4.46 trillion yuan, down 2.3% year-on-year, but it actually increased by about 2.5% according to comparable caliber. Let me explain here. You may have noticed that due to the measures taken to deal with the epidemic, in recent years, when comparing the economic data, the situation is often more complicated. In recent years, the fiscal revenue has also fluctuated greatly, which is mainly related to some measures and policies adopted by us to reduce taxes and fees in response to the epidemic. Therefore, according to the international common practice, some special and incomparable factors need to be deducted when making the year-on-year comparison, so as to reflect the trend change more objectively and truly.

Judging from the situation in January and February this year, the year-on-year decline in income was mainly disturbed by two special factors. On the one hand, the base has been raised. For example, in 2022, some small and medium-sized enterprises in manufacturing were put into storage in the first few months of 2023, which raised the income base in 2023. On the other hand, the tax reduction policy introduced in the middle of last year has an impact on this year’s revenue reduction. For example, in August 2023, the stamp duty on securities transactions was halved, which will make the low tax rate implemented in the first eight months of this year correspond to the relatively high tax rate in the same period last year. Another example is that in mid-2023, the policy of adding and deducting the value-added tax of advanced manufacturing enterprises and increasing the pre-tax deduction ratio of R&D expenses of enterprises in some industries also belongs to this situation. This has lowered the tax increase in January and February this year. Therefore, after deducting the above-mentioned special factors, the national general public budget revenue increased by about 2.5% in January and February under comparable caliber. In fact, it has achieved a recovery growth, which is basically consistent with the steady and positive trend of the macro economy.

Second, the fiscal expenditure is reflected in the front, and the progress is accelerated. From January to February, the national general public budget expenditure increased by 6.7% year-on-year, accounting for 15.3% of the annual budget. The expenditure progress was the fastest in the same period of the past five years, among which the expenditure in social security and employment, education, urban and rural communities, agriculture, forestry, water and transportation increased rapidly, and the expenditure on key projects was effectively guaranteed. Fiscal expenditure has both aggregate effect and structural effect, so we believe it will play a positive role in promoting macroeconomic recovery, promoting economic restructuring and promoting social capital investment.

In the next step, the Ministry of Finance will implement the spirit of the Central Economic Work Conference and the National "Two Sessions", implement a proactive fiscal policy, combine fiscal policy tools such as deficit, special debt, extra-long special national debt and tax incentives, and at the same time strengthen coordination with policies such as currency, employment, industry, region, science and technology, and environmental protection, so as to ensure concerted efforts and joint efforts, and promote the effective improvement of quality and reasonable growth of the economy.

Looking forward to the whole year, I believe that with the further amplification of the combined effects of various policies, it will not only consolidate and enhance the positive trend of macroeconomic recovery in the current period, but also promote the supply-side structural reform, technological progress and the development of new quality productivity, which will also help China’s economy maintain a medium-and long-term growth trend and build a solid foundation for fiscal sustainability. Thank you.

Shou Xiaoli:

Thank you, Vice Minister Liao Min, for your introduction. Next, please let Mr. Xuan Changneng make an introduction.

Xuan Changneng, Vice Governor of China People’s Bank:

Hello, media friends! Thank you for your long-term concern and support for the financial sector. Since the beginning of this year, the People’s Bank of China has stepped up macro-policy regulation and control, and the prudent monetary policy is flexible, moderate, accurate and effective, focusing on expanding domestic demand, boosting confidence and creating a suitable monetary and financial environment for economic recovery.

The picture shows Xuan Changneng, deputy governor of China People’s Bank. (photo by Xu Xiang)

In terms of the total amount, we will maintain a reasonable growth and steady pace of money, credit and financing. While flexibly manipulating the medium-term loan facility (MLF) and open market operation, the RRR was lowered by 0.5 percentage points in the beginning of the year, and the long-term liquidity was released at one time, exceeding 1 trillion yuan, which fully guaranteed the liquidity supply in terms of quantity. At the same time, pay attention to guiding financial institutions to strengthen the balanced loan supply, prevent credit fluctuations from increasing and "opening the door" excessively, and provide stable and sustainable financial support for the economy.

Structurally, continuously optimize the credit structure and pay attention to improving efficiency. Scientific and technological innovation, advanced manufacturing, and green development are all important areas that reflect high-quality development. The People’s Bank of China continues to implement refinancing to support carbon emission reduction. The 500 billion yuan mortgage supplementary loan (PSL) newly added in December last year has also been fully distributed, and scientific and technological innovation and technological transformation refinancing will be set up to continuously improve the efficiency of promoting economic restructuring, transformation and upgrading, and conversion of old and new kinetic energy, and do a good job in the "five major articles" of finance. At the same time, increase efforts to revitalize existing financial resources, promote effective investment, and help resolve excess capacity.

In terms of price, the cost of comprehensive social financing will be steadily reduced and the RMB exchange rate will be kept stable. Faced with the constraints of domestic bank deposit and loan spreads and domestic and foreign spreads, the People’s Bank of China has continued to show the effect of reducing costs through policy mix. Guided by the previous policies of lowering the deposit interest rate, and lowering the interest rate of re-lending and re-discounting to support agriculture, the quoted interest rate (LPR) of loans over five years in February dropped by 0.25 percentage points, the largest decline since the LPR reform, effectively driving the continuous decline of loan interest rates. At the same time, it not only insists that the market plays a decisive role in the formation of the exchange rate, but also plays a good role in the adjustment of the exchange rate to the macro-economy and the international balance of payments, and strengthens the expected guidance to prevent the risk of exchange rate overshoot, thus maintaining the basic stability of the RMB exchange rate under the complicated situation.

The monetary policy has achieved remarkable results, and the quality and efficiency of financial support for the real economy have continued to improve. There are several aspects: first, the total amount has increased reasonably. At the end of February, M2, social financing scale and RMB loans maintained rapid growth of 8.7%, 9.0% and 10.1% respectively, which was in line with market expectations. Second, the support for the "five big articles" has increased. At the end of February, small and micro loans of Pratt & Whitney increased by 23.1% year-on-year, medium and long-term loans of manufacturing industry and high-tech manufacturing industry increased by 28.3% and 26.5% year-on-year, respectively, and financial resources flowed more to key areas such as high-quality development. Third, the financing cost is reduced and the exchange rate is stable. In February, the weighted average interest rate of corporate loans was 3.72%, down by 0.13 percentage points year-on-year. Since February, the exchange rate of RMB against the US dollar has been stable around 7.2 yuan, taking into account the internal and external balance.

China’s monetary policy has sufficient policy space and abundant tool reserves, and the statutory deposit reserve ratio still has room for decline. The downward deposit cost and the shift of monetary policy in major economies are conducive to broadening the autonomy of interest rate policy operation, and the establishment of scientific and technological innovation and technological transformation refinancing will help accelerate the development of high-end manufacturing and digital economy. In the next stage, a prudent monetary policy will continue to be flexible, moderate, accurate and effective, reasonably grasp the relationship between bonds and credit, maintain reasonable and abundant liquidity, promote the steady decline of corporate financing and residents’ credit costs, continue to do a good job in the "five major articles", intensify efforts to revitalize existing financial resources, maintain the basic stability of RMB exchange rate at a reasonable and balanced level, and balance the relationship between short-term and long-term, steady growth and risk prevention, internal balance and external balance. Thank you!

Shou Xiaoli:

Thank you, Vice President Xuan Changneng, for your introduction. Let’s start asking questions. Please inform your news organization before asking questions.

21st century business herald reporter:

Last year, China issued another 1 trillion yuan of national debt. What is the current progress? This year’s "Government Work Report" proposes to issue ultra-long-term special government bonds. As the competent investment department, how will the National Development and Reform Commission promote related work and improve the efficiency of government investment? Thank you.

Liu Sushe:

Thank you for your question. I want to answer it from three aspects.

First, about the issuance of government bonds in 2023. As we all know, last year, 1 trillion yuan of treasury bonds were issued to specifically support post-disaster recovery and reconstruction in North China, focusing on Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and to enhance disaster prevention, mitigation and relief capabilities. In order to do this work well, the National Development and Reform Commission, in accordance with the deployment of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, quickly established a working mechanism with relevant departments to organize and promote project screening, factor guarantee, construction and other work. By February this year, the Development and Reform Commission had issued a list of 1 trillion yuan of additional treasury bonds in three batches, and all the funds for additional treasury bonds had been implemented to 15,000 specific projects.

From the perspective of support, more than half of the 1 trillion yuan of additional national debt is used for the construction of related water conservancy facilities such as flood control and drainage, more than 200 billion yuan is used for post-disaster reconstruction in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the rest is mainly used for the improvement of natural disaster emergency response capacity and the construction of comprehensive prevention and control systems such as forest fires. Project construction in these areas will effectively restore and improve the production and living conditions in disaster areas, significantly enhance the ability to prevent and respond to natural disasters, and objectively promote the steady growth of infrastructure investment.

Judging from the project progress. At present, the Development and Reform Commission has established a scheduling mechanism for the issuance of treasury bonds, and has begun to comprehensively schedule the progress of the projects. Judging from the current situation, the construction of related projects is progressing in an orderly manner. For example, the project operating rates in Beijing and Hebei Province have reached 48% and 45% respectively. We will urge local governments to speed up the work progress, carry out on-the-spot supervision with relevant departments, push all these projects to start in the first half of this year, and form more physical workload during the year. In particular, we will urge some post-disaster reconstruction projects to be completed and put into use before the flood season this year, so as to truly turn all projects into popular projects, high-quality projects and clean projects.

The second aspect is about ultra-long-term special national debt.

The "Government Work Report" proposes that from this year, it is planned to issue ultra-long-term special government bonds for several consecutive years, specifically for the implementation of major national strategies and the construction of security capabilities in key areas. In accordance with the decision-making arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the Development and Reform Commission, together with relevant departments, will study and formulate specific plans, refine and improve support areas, and further clarify work requirements. The overall consideration is to coordinate "hard investment" and "soft construction", concentrate on solving some major problems in the process of building a strong country and national rejuvenation, and lay a solid foundation for realizing the goal of the second century as scheduled.

In the next step, the Development and Reform Commission will quickly organize and implement the plan together with relevant parties after it is approved by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council. On the one hand, focus on key areas such as scientific and technological innovation, urban-rural integration development, regional coordinated development, food and energy resources security, and high-quality population development, organize project planning and storage, preliminary work and construction implementation, and support a number of high-quality projects. On the other hand, we will promptly promote the introduction and implementation of relevant supporting policies and measures, break down deep-seated obstacles through institutional and institutional reforms, and form synergies with major project construction to ensure the high-quality landing of various tasks.

The third aspect is about improving the efficiency of government investment.

The Central Economic Work Conference proposed that to expand effective investment, in addition to the 1 trillion yuan of treasury bonds issued last year, 1 trillion yuan of ultra-long-term special treasury bonds this year, 700 billion yuan of investment in the central budget this year, and 3.9 trillion yuan of local government special bonds, the total scale of these funds exceeds 6 trillion yuan. Therefore, improving the efficiency of government investment and giving full play to the leading role of government investment in the whole society is a key and key point of investment work this year.

We consider that we should focus on the following aspects this year: First, do a good job in the preliminary work. Urge relevant parties to strengthen the project reserve, strengthen the preliminary demonstration such as feasibility study, and improve the scientific nature of investment decision. At the same time, coordinate and increase the protection of land use, environmental impact assessment and other factors, and actively implement supporting financing. The second is to optimize the investment field. Adjust and optimize the investment structure in the central budget, appropriately expand the scope of local government special bonds and use them as capital, and at the same time strengthen the overall connection and dislocation arrangement of various government investments to form the overall synergy of various funds. The third is to strengthen the whole chain management. We will further improve various regulations, build a management mechanism covering the whole cycle and chain of government investment projects, such as planning and reserve, preliminary work, investment decision-making, construction and operation, supervision and inspection, and promote the improvement of investment benefits with refined management. Thank you.

Economic Daily reporter:

Excuse me, what are the main areas of new credit in the first two months of 2024? What are the highlights? Thank you.

Xuan Changneng:

Thank you for your question. Since the beginning of this year, the People’s Bank of China has given full play to the dual functions of monetary policy tools, and guided financial institutions to increase their support for key areas and weak links of the national economy, such as inclusive finance, scientific and technological innovation, manufacturing, infrastructure and privatization, on the basis of strengthening credit support for the real economy.

In terms of the total amount, the total amount of credit continued to maintain steady and rapid growth. At the end of February, the balance of RMB loans of financial institutions was 243.96 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 10.1%. In the first two months, new loans amounted to 6.37 trillion yuan.

From the structural point of view, the credit structure has been continuously optimized. There are the following highlights:

First, credit growth in key industries of the national economy remained high. At the end of February, the balance of medium and long-term loans in manufacturing industry increased by 28.3% year-on-year. As mentioned earlier, the balance of medium and long-term loans in high-tech manufacturing industry increased by 26.5% year-on-year. Medium-and long-term loans in infrastructure industry increased by 14.0% year-on-year, and the balance of loans for high-tech, "specialized and innovative" and small and medium-sized science and technology enterprises increased by 14.2%, 18.5% and 21.4% respectively, which were significantly higher than the growth rate of various loans by 10.1% in the same period, and the proportion of loans further increased.

Second, more financial resources flow to the weak links of the national economy. At the end of February, the balance of Pratt & Whitney small and micro loans increased by 23.1% year-on-year; In the first two months, it increased by 1 trillion yuan, an increase of 110.2 billion yuan. At the end of February, the balance of full-caliber agriculture-related loans increased by 14.5% year-on-year, 4.4 percentage points higher than the growth rate of various loans in the same period; In the first two months, it increased by 2.53 trillion yuan, an increase of 170.8 billion yuan. Loans from the private economy are on the increase. At the end of February, the balance of private economy loans increased by 11.6% year-on-year, 1.5 percentage points higher than the growth rate of various loans in the same period.

Thank you!

Nanfang Daily Southern+Reporter:

According to the Government Work Report, deficit ratio plans to make arrangements according to 3%, and "the proactive fiscal policy should be moderately strengthened, improving quality and increasing efficiency". Please tell us about the specific deployment of moderate fiscal policy. How do these measures affect the overall financial debt burden? Thank you.

Liao Min:

Thank you for your question. Your question is actually how to look at the balance between fiscal policy supporting economic growth and maintaining the sustainability of fiscal operation.

Macro-control requires the organic combination and joint action of various tools. From the perspective of fiscal policy, this year is to implement the work requirements of "moderately increasing strength, improving quality and increasing efficiency" put forward by the Central Economic Work Conference and the National People’s Congress. What you care about is the moderate strength, which is not only reflected in the deficit policy, but also includes various policy tools such as special debt, ultra-long-term special national debt, and tax and fee concessions.

This year, according to the arrangement of 3%, the deficit in deficit ratio is 4.06 trillion yuan, which is 180 billion yuan higher than the budget at the beginning of last year. By coordinating all kinds of financial resources, the fiscal expenditure has reached 28.5 trillion yuan, which is 1.1 trillion yuan higher than last year, maintaining a high expenditure intensity. Considering that 1 trillion yuan of treasury bonds were issued in the fourth quarter of last year, most of them were used this year. In fact, the expenditure effect will be more reflected in this year. In addition, this year, 3.9 trillion yuan of local government special bonds will be arranged, an increase of 100 billion yuan over last year, and 1 trillion yuan of ultra-long-term special government bonds will be arranged. Together with the implementation of structural tax reduction and fee reduction policies, all these policies will provide necessary and strong support for achieving this year’s economic and social development goals.

I am very happy to tell you a new situation. Recently, we learned that you are very concerned about the bond issuance of the China government. According to the overall financial plan, these government bonds are being issued one after another. Here, we can see that China government bonds have been widely welcomed in the market. In the past few months, overseas investors have increased their holdings for several months, making them one of the best performing government bonds in Asia.

Of course, while supporting economic growth, you were just concerned about financial sustainability. The financial department has always insisted on coordinating steady growth and risk prevention, coordinating needs and possibilities, scientifically and rationally arranging deficit levels and government debt levels, and ensuring medium-and long-term fiscal sustainability. In the past few years, even during the epidemic, our deficit ratio has remained relatively stable, which is a prominent feature among major economies. From 2018 to 2023, the overall fiscal deficit ratio will be controlled within 3%. In 2024, deficit ratio will be arranged at 3%, which is also determined by comprehensive consideration of various factors. Generally speaking, we believe that the level of government debt in China is moderate, which not only meets the objective needs of promoting economic stability, but also helps to achieve medium-and long-term fiscal sustainability.

Thank you all.

CCTV reporter from the Central Radio and Television General Station:

In recent years, China has continuously increased investment in social and people’s livelihood to enhance people’s well-being. What work have we focused on in the field of social and people’s livelihood? How to promote the filling of shortcomings and weaknesses in the field of social and people’s livelihood and further enhance people’s livelihood security? Thank you.

Liu Sushe:

I’ll answer this question. People’s livelihood is the foundation of our party’s governance, the foundation of people’s happiness and the source of social harmony. The National Development and Reform Commission has implemented the decision-making arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, worked with relevant departments to formulate and dynamically adjust the national basic public service standards. Since the Tenth Five-Year Plan, it has arranged a total investment of 219.6 billion yuan in the central budget to strengthen infrastructure construction in the fields of education, health care, employment, cultural tourism, social services, national fitness, and "one old and one small", and strived to fill the shortcomings and weaknesses in the social field. I introduce it from several aspects:

The first is to strengthen the construction of educational infrastructure. Mainly to improve the conditions of compulsory education schools and expand the supply of basic education degrees. Support vocational colleges and application-oriented undergraduate colleges to build production-education integration training bases. At the same time, we will continue to improve the running ability of central universities, universities in the central and western regions, high-quality medical and normal universities, and strengthen connotative development.

The second is to build a high-quality and efficient medical and health service system. Focus on the problem that it is difficult and expensive for people to see a doctor, actively support the high-quality development of public hospitals, strengthen health services for women and children, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine. Build a number of national regional medical centers to promote the expansion of high-quality medical resources and regional balanced layout. Actively and steadily promote the construction of "emergency and emergency" public infrastructure and build a strong public health system.

The third is to support the development of social services and national fitness. Continue to promote the construction of service facilities for social welfare, disabled people and retired military personnel, and fill in the shortcomings of funeral facilities. Support the construction of sports parks and social football venues, and improve the facilities and conditions of national fitness venues.

The fourth is to improve the service ability of "one old and one small". We will speed up the construction of an old-age care service system that is coordinated with community organizations at home and combines medical care with health care. We have issued the Opinions on Developing a Silver-haired Economy to Improve the Well-being of the Elderly, which has promoted the development and growth of the care service system, and carried out pilot projects for the construction of comprehensive care service centers in some cities.

The fifth is to continuously improve people’s quality of life. It issued the protection plan for the construction of the Yellow River National Cultural Park, promoted the construction of the Grand Canal National Cultural Park, and supported the construction of cultural heritage protection projects such as Sanxingdui and Luoyang City in Han and Wei Dynasties. The "Implementation Plan for the Construction of Embedded Service Facilities in Urban Communities" was issued to promote the extension of "one old and one small" inclusive services to the community.

At present, there are still many shortcomings and weaknesses in the field of people’s livelihood, which is far from the expectations of society and the needs of the people. In the next step, in accordance with the decision-making arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, we will persist in safeguarding and improving people’s livelihood in development, constantly improve the public service system and improve people’s quality of life. The key point is to work with relevant departments to guide all localities to implement the 2023 version of the national basic public service standards, persist in doing their best and do what they can, and firmly grasp the basic bottom line of people’s livelihood. At the same time, we will continue to increase investment in people’s livelihood, give full play to the guiding and inciting role of investment in the central budget, make good use of other funding channels, actively promote the shortcomings, strengths and weaknesses and quality improvement of key people’s livelihood areas, promote the improvement of social livelihood policies, and adopt more measures to benefit people’s livelihood and warm people’s hearts, and continuously enhance the people’s sense of acquisition, happiness and security. Thank you.

The Paper reporter:

In the first two months of this year, China’s private investment turned from negative to positive. How do you view the current development trend of private investment and what measures will be taken in the next stage to further stimulate private investment? Thank you.

Liu Sushe:

Private investment is a very important foundation for the development of private economy, and it is also a "barometer" of the activity of private economy. The National Development and Reform Commission has implemented the decision-making arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, and adopted a series of measures to encourage, support and promote the development of private investment. Since last year, we have promulgated 17 policies and measures to promote private investment, promoted the solution of the problems and demands of private enterprises, established a new mechanism for cooperation between the government and social capital, publicly introduced major projects to the society, attracted the participation of private capital, and vigorously created a good environment for the development of private investment. According to the platform of private capital promotion projects, as of February 29, there were 1612 projects attracting private capital, with a total investment of more than 2 trillion yuan. With the implementation of a series of policies, the growth rate of private investment in the country gradually stabilized in the last few months of last year. From January to February this year, private investment increased by 0.4% year-on-year, and the growth rate turned from negative to positive, which can be said to show a good development trend.

In the next step, the National Development and Reform Commission will, in accordance with the decision-making arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, promote the development of private investment with greater efforts and more practical measures, focus on stabilizing and expanding private investment, and strive to maintain a steady growth trend of private investment.

First, improve the institutional environment so that private enterprises can "feel at ease". At present, the law on the promotion of private economy is being studied and drafted to provide legal protection for better promoting the development of private economy and create a stable and predictable institutional environment for private investment.

Second, broaden the investment space and let private enterprises "have some investment". It is mainly to promote local and related industries to implement the new mechanism of cooperation between government and social capital, manage and make good use of private investment guidance projects in central budget investment, and encourage private enterprises to participate in the construction and operation of infrastructure projects to the greatest extent.

Third, strengthen the factor guarantee, so that private enterprises can "invest well". We will build and make good use of the national key private investment project library, strengthen the guarantee of financing and land use for private investment projects through mechanisms such as investment and loan linkage and land use guarantee for major projects, and promote the implementation of more private investment projects. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the evaluation and scheduling of promoting private investment, fully mobilize the enthusiasm of local governments to encourage the development of private investment, and promote the formation of joint efforts in all aspects. Thank you.

China Daily reporter:

Employment is the foundation of people’s livelihood, and all sectors of society are very concerned about it. What measures does the Ministry of Finance take to support the employment of key people?

Liao Min:

Thank you for your question. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council attached great importance to the employment work, and emphasized the overall consideration of raising stable employment to a strategic level. As we all know, only when there is employment can there be income, only when there is income can there be consumption, and only when there is consumption can there be domestic demand. The Ministry of Finance continues to base itself on its financial functions, promote the implementation of the employment priority strategy, and strengthen employment support for key groups such as college graduates, migrant workers and people with employment difficulties. This year, we will focus on the following aspects to do relevant work:

First, give more prominence to the employment priority orientation. Persist in taking stabilizing and expanding employment as the priority goal of economic and social development, and pay more attention to promoting employment when formulating fiscal and taxation policies. In 2024, the central government allocated 66.7 billion yuan of employment subsidy funds to support the implementation of employment and entrepreneurship support policies.

The second is to support business entities to stabilize jobs. It is mainly to implement the structural tax reduction and fee reduction policy, continue to implement the phased policy of reducing unemployment and industrial injury insurance rates, and strive to reduce the cost burden of business entities. We will continue to implement the policy of returning unemployment insurance to stable posts, and return the unemployment insurance premiums actually paid in the previous year in proportion to enterprises that do not lay off employees or reduce employees, so as to support enterprises to stabilize their posts and absorb employment.

The third is to help play the role of entrepreneurship in promoting employment. The financial department will give discount loans to eligible key groups and small and micro enterprises that have absorbed their employment. We have made an internal calculation to guide government financing guarantee institutions to increase their inclination to labor-intensive enterprises. It is estimated that in 2024, 1.3 trillion yuan of new loans will be mobilized, more than 12 million jobs will be stabilized, and more than 600,000 new jobs will be created. Support colleges and universities to strengthen innovation and entrepreneurship education and enhance college students’ innovation and entrepreneurship ability. Business start-up subsidies will be given to qualified college graduates and people with employment difficulties who start small and micro enterprises for the first time or engage in self-employment.

The fourth is to continue to focus on the employment of key groups. Encourage enterprises to increase recruitment efforts, give social insurance subsidies to those who attract employment from key groups, and give employment internship subsidies to those who recruit qualified college graduates. We will tap more employment opportunities and jobs at the grassroots level, and implement the western plan, the "three supports and one support" plan, the "special post plan" and the special plan for college students’ village doctors. The financial department will give support to encourage and guide college graduates to work at the grassroots level. At the same time, the tuition fees of eligible college graduates who are employed in hard and remote areas will be compensated. In addition, we will continue to provide classified employment assistance to the poverty-stricken population, rural low-income population and the disabled, and consolidate the results of poverty alleviation.

These measures are real, and it is expected that with the gradual implementation in place, they will play a positive role in promoting employment this year and make contributions to the financial sector. Thank you.

Xinhua News Agency China Economic Information Agency reporter:

At the end of February, data such as social financing scale and M2 have been released. Excuse me, does the growth rate of these indicators match the current economic situation in China? How should we view the performance of these indicators? Thank you.

Xuan Changneng:

Thank you for your question. Both the Central Economic Work Conference and the Government Work Report emphasized that monetary policy should be steady, the scale of social financing should be maintained, and the money supply should match the expected targets of economic growth and price level. The expected target for this year is GDP growth of about 5% and consumer price increase of about 3%, which means that the expected target of nominal economic growth is about 8%. At the end of February, the scale of social financing and M2 of broad money increased by 9% and 8.7% respectively, which was not low on the whole, which matched the expected growth target mentioned above and still reflected the countercyclical adjustment of monetary policy. These data can be analyzed from the following angles:

First, the base was relatively high in the same period last year. At the beginning of last year, China was still in the initial stage of epidemic prevention and control, and the domestic economy was greatly affected. The macro-policy was put forward, the response was significantly increased, and the financial indicators grew rapidly. The growth rates of M2 and social financing reached 12.9% and 9.9% at the end of February last year, respectively, of which the growth rate of M2 increased by 3.7 percentage points compared with the same period of the previous year. At present, the national economy continues to improve, the growth rate of industrial production and import and export exceeds expectations, and consumption and investment have steadily picked up. The total amount of financing this year has continued to increase by about 9% on the basis of last year’s high base, which is actually relatively high.

Second, pay more attention to the steady pace of credit supply. In the first quarter of last year, loans were increased, which supported the accelerated economic recovery after the epidemic. Since the beginning of this year, the overall economic recovery has improved. Apart from paying attention to the total amount, we have also paid more attention to guiding the smooth credit supply of financial institutions to avoid the "good start" rushing too hard, resulting in insufficient stamina. Judging from the financial data of these two months, the previous guidance has produced results, and it is expected that the financial support for the real economy will be more sustainable this year.

Third, the efficiency of financial resource allocation has improved. The Central Economic Work Conference emphasized the need to revitalize the stock and improve efficiency, while the Central Financial Work Conference emphasized the need to revitalize the financial resources that were occupied inefficiently. The "Government Work Report" emphasizes the need to avoid idling of funds. At the end of February, the balance of loans reached 244 trillion yuan, mainly reflecting the M2 balance of deposits of enterprises and residents as high as 300 trillion yuan. These stock resources are at the disposal of enterprises and residents and can be used to support economic development. At present, the scale of China’s money and credit stock is large enough. With the adjustment of economic structure, transformation and upgrading, and the improvement of the efficiency of the conversion of old and new kinetic energy, the use efficiency of stock resources will be significantly improved, which can better support the high-quality economic development. At the same growth rate, financial support for the real economy is still stable.

Generally speaking, in the stage of economic structure transformation and upgrading and high-quality development, we should not only look at the increment and growth rate of financial data, but also pay attention to the improvement of stock quality and efficiency. At the same time, there is a close relationship between financial tightness and the quality of economic growth. A moderately tight financial environment is conducive to investing financial resources in more efficient industries and enterprises. The People’s Bank of China will guide financial institutions to actively tap credit demand, scientifically formulate annual credit arrangements, revitalize existing financial resources, and at the same time support the accelerated development of direct financing to maintain a reasonable increase in the total amount of money, credit and financing.

Thank you.

China Financial News reporter:

Creating a market-oriented, legalized and internationalized first-class business environment is the key word in this year’s Government Work Report. In recent years, what measures has the Ministry of Finance taken to improve the business environment, especially to facilitate foreign-funded enterprises and products to enter the China market and participate in the competition on an equal footing? What are the next considerations? Thank you.

Liao Min:

Thank you for your question. Optimizing the business environment is the key to cultivate and stimulate market vitality and enhance the endogenous power of development. A few days ago, the National People’s Congress (NPC) and the National People’s Congress (NPC) have closed, and relevant macroeconomic policies, objectives and measures have been released. At the same time, it continues to release a clear signal of expanding high-level opening-up, demonstrating China’s belief and determination to continuously improve the business environment. Recently, the General Office of the State Council has just issued the Action Plan for Firmly Promoting High-level Opening-up and Greater Attraction and Utilization of Foreign Capital, expecting more measures.

We know that for Chinese-funded enterprises, China’s market with a population of 1.4 billion is a domestic market, but for foreign-funded enterprises, China’s market with a population of 1.4 billion is one of its most important international markets. Therefore, it is of great significance for China enterprises to "go global" and for global investors to "come in" to promote the implementation of high-level institutional opening. China’s high-quality development and the cultivation of new-quality productive forces will increasingly turn into opportunities shared by the whole world, and the open China market will also provide more new opportunities for world development.

In recent years, the Ministry of Finance has actively participated in building a first-class business environment and made some positive progress. Here is a report for everyone: First, we will continue to reduce the overall level of tariffs. At present, the overall tariff level has been reduced to 7.3%, which is at a low level in the world. Second, actively participate in international tax reform, multilateral and bilateral financial exchanges and cooperation, learn from international best practices, and share China’s experience in reform and opening up. Third, in government procurement, we treat the products and services produced by domestic and foreign-funded enterprises in China equally, and clean up and rectify the regulations and practices that treat domestic and foreign-funded enterprises differently. Fourth, pay attention to communication with foreign investors and enterprises, and actively solve their practical difficulties and problems in government procurement, enterprise-related taxes and fees, etc. We have a special mechanism to investigate and deal with the information in time after receiving it. Fifth, mutual recognition of accounting standards and auditing standards has been achieved with many countries, supporting transnational investment, trade and financial activities. Sixth, we will increase financial support for improving the protection of intellectual property rights, support the examination of patents and trademarks, promote the use of intellectual property rights, and strengthen intellectual property protection throughout the chain.

The business environment is not the best, only better. In the next step, we will continue to improve the protection mechanism of foreign investment rights and interests, reduce the negative list of foreign investment access, fully protect the national treatment of foreign-invested enterprises, continuously strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights, break down the barriers that restrict the flow of innovation factors, accelerate the construction of a unified big market, and provide better protection for enterprises from all over the world to invest in China. Thank you all.

American International Market News Agency reporter:

The central bank’s creditor’s rights to deposit-taking financial institutions have reached a record high. The balance sheet of the central bank has expanded by more than 5 trillion yuan since last August, but the credit growth rate is relatively slow. How to explain this difference? Does finance need to continue to reduce leverage in view of the idling of funds?

Xuan Changneng:

Thank you for your question. You actually asked two questions. The first is about the central bank’s balance sheet. According to the Law of the People’s Bank of China, the statutory goal of monetary policy is to maintain the stability of the currency value and promote economic growth. In recent years, the requirement of prudent monetary policy is to keep the liquidity reasonable and abundant, and to match the scale of social financing and money supply with the expected goals of economic growth and price level, so as to achieve the statutory goals. When the central bank achieves its goal, it will comprehensively use a variety of monetary policy tools, including deposit reserve ratio, refinancing, open market operations and so on. Among them, the RRR cut will reduce the demand for reserves, release long-term liquidity, and have a substitution effect on central bank funds; The central bank will increase the creditor’s rights of deposit-taking financial institutions and will actively put in liquidity. If the RRR is lowered more, the central bank’s balance sheet will expand less; If the RRR cut is less, the central bank’s balance sheet will expand a little. Which tool to use depends on the needs of different situations, and the quantity will be more or less. Overall, it is to create a good monetary and financial environment.

The balance sheet changes of foreign central banks are also very concerned, especially QE and QT of major foreign central banks, because their statutory deposit reserve ratio is almost zero, and there is little room for adjustment. More attention is paid to adjusting liquidity by actively expanding and contracting the table. The average level of China’s deposit reserve ratio is still 7%, which is still an important means of liquidity. In addition, the balance sheet of China’s central bank is about 45 trillion yuan, and the loan balance is 244 trillion yuan, the ratio of which is close to 1: 5. Compared with foreign central banks, China’s monetary policy transmission is effective, and the current credit growth rate is also maintained at a reasonable level, which is conducive to achieving the statutory goals of the central bank and supporting high-quality economic development. As mentioned by foreign central banks just now, open market operation is the main channel to regulate liquidity, that is, the main means to expand and shrink the table.

The second question is about the idling of funds. All parties are concerned about this issue, and we are also strengthening monitoring. We will continue to pay close attention to the transfer and lending of corporate loans, cooperate with relevant departments, improve the management assessment mechanism, and promote the efficiency of capital use. At present, the effect of preventing funds from idling has already appeared. As enterprises standardize the use of funds, the growth rate of total financing may be lower than before, but the actual support for high-quality economic development will be even greater.

Thank you.

Shou Xiaoli:

Due to the time, the last two questions.

The picture shows Shou Xiaoli, deputy director and spokesperson of the State Council Information Office, inviting reporters to ask questions. (photo by Yan Haijun)

Reuters reporter:

We are concerned that the central bank recently proposed to maintain price stability and promote a moderate price recovery as an important consideration of monetary policy. I wonder what specific policies the central bank will have in the next step to boost domestic demand, guard against possible deflation risks and ensure the realization of this year’s economic growth target? Thank you.

Xuan Changneng:

Regarding the price issue, I will make some explanations and explanations from the perspective of monetary policy.

From a quantitative point of view, to keep the scale of social financing and money supply in line with the expected targets of economic growth and price level, it implies the consideration of adjusting the price level through monetary policy. The annual target of monetary policy has taken into account the maintenance of price stability and the promotion of moderate price recovery. The expected target this year is GDP growth of about 5% and consumer price increase of about 3%. If the scale of social financing and M2 growth rate are not less than 8%, the expected target of 3% price level has been considered.

From the price point of view, by deepening the interest rate marketization reform, guiding banks to lower the deposit interest rate, and promoting the loan market quotation rate (LPR) to continue to decline, all these are conducive to reducing the comprehensive financing cost of society, stimulating potential consumption, expanding effective investment, maintaining price stability, and promoting a moderate price recovery.

In the next step, the People’s Bank of China will guide financial institutions to scientifically assess risks, curb the blind expansion of industries with overcapacity, meet the demand for reasonable consumption financing, and improve the quality and efficiency of financial services by optimizing the credit structure. At the same time, strengthen policy coordination, support the increase of residents’ income, expand employment, improve the social security system, thoroughly implement the consumption-driven strategy, focus on expanding domestic demand, promote the matching of supply and demand, and promote a virtuous circle of the economy. All these have an important supporting role in the moderate recovery of the price level.

thank you

Southern Metropolis Daily reporter:

We noticed that the investment in equipment manufacturing and high-tech manufacturing in January and February was significantly higher than the overall manufacturing investment growth rate. What is the development trend of related fields? How to cultivate and expand strategic emerging industries in the next step? Thank you.

Liu Sushe:

Just now, I mentioned that in January and February this year, the growth rate of manufacturing investment accelerated, up 9.4% year-on-year, and the growth rate was 5.2 percentage points higher than the overall investment, which became an important support for stable investment and stable economy. Among them, investment in equipment manufacturing industry increased by 14.3% year-on-year, and investment in high-tech manufacturing industry increased by 10%, both faster than the growth rate of overall manufacturing investment. These data show that the pace of transformation and upgrading of China’s manufacturing industry is accelerating, the structure is continuously optimized, and industries with high technology, high efficiency and high quality are showing a good trend of development.

The rapid growth of investment in equipment and high-tech manufacturing industry is behind the investment of "real money and silver". Being able to make such investment decisions not only has the support and guidance of national policies, but also reflects the confidence of enterprises in future development. In terms of supporting policies, the National Development and Reform Commission issued and implemented the Guiding Catalogue of Industrial Structure Adjustment (2024 edition), organized major technical equipment research projects and actions to enhance the core competitiveness of manufacturing industry, focused on the shortcomings of industrial development, increased support for technological innovation, and promoted strategic emerging industrial clusters to become better and stronger. From the production situation, from January to February, the added value of equipment manufacturing industry above designated size increased by 8.6%, and the added value of high-tech manufacturing industry increased by 7.5%, which was 1.6 and 0.5 percentage points higher than the total industrial added value respectively. At the same time, the output of service robots and 3D printing equipment increased by 22.2% and 49.5% respectively. From the perspective of economic benefits, the profit of China’s equipment manufacturing industry increased by 4.1% in 2023, 2.4 percentage points faster than that in 2022, which provided strong support for expanding production and investment in related fields.

In the next step, our Committee will conscientiously implement the decision-making arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, accelerate the cultivation and development of new quality productive forces, and vigorously promote the construction of a modern industrial system. We will strengthen the dominant position of enterprise innovation, lead industrial innovation with scientific and technological innovation, and promote the formation of an enterprise echelon with leading enterprises leading innovation, rapid growth of small and medium-sized enterprises and emerging start-ups; Create a highland for industrial agglomeration and development, promote the development of strategic emerging industries, and create a number of new regional economic growth poles with reasonable structure, unique characteristics and complementary advantages; Optimize the ecology of industrial innovation and development, improve the working mechanism of talent training, introduction, use and rational flow, innovate diversified capital supply, and actively integrate into the global innovation ecology. Through these measures, we will accelerate the development of strategic emerging industries, constantly shape new kinetic energy and new advantages for development, and promote high-quality economic development. Thank you.

Shou Xiaoli:

Thank you, three publishers, and thank you, journalists and friends. That’s all for today’s press conference. Goodbye!

Interior environment becomes a hot spot of automobile quality complaints. Experts call for the introduction of mandatory standards for interior pollution as soon as possible.

  According to the latest data of "Analysis Report on Indoor Air Quality Problems" released by Chezhi. com, from 2010 to August 2019, consumers complained about the odor inside the car for 9,300 times. From January to August this year alone, the number of related complaints reached 1,646 times. It is predicted that the number of complaints in the whole year will reach a record high.

  "The lack of relevant control standards in the interior environment, lack of legal basis and lack of supervision have led to increasing air quality problems in the car." Become the consensus of experts. Recently, at the "Third March 15th Automobile Consumption Forum and Symposium on Promoting the Issuance of Compulsory Standards for Indoor Pollution" sponsored by china law society Consumer Law Research Association and co-organized by Chezhi. com, participants in drafting relevant standards for indoor environment, environmental experts, legal professionals, scholars and senior experts in the automobile industry had in-depth discussions on the existing problems of indoor air quality, the reasons for the delay in the introduction of compulsory standards, and how consumers should safeguard their rights and interests.

  The smell inside the car has become one of the hot issues of automobile quality.

  According to a folk statistic in 2017, there are more than 4,600 models on sale in China automobile market. Combined with the faster and faster iteration speed of models, there will be more models on sale at present. According to the data released by the Ministry of Public Security, as of June this year, the number of cars in China has reached 250 million.

  With the rapid improvement of modernization, people’s dependence on vehicles has become increasingly obvious. In addition to homes and workplaces, vehicles have become one of the main places where human beings stay. On the other hand, in order to meet consumers’ requirements for automobile comfort, manufacturers constantly improve the structural design of automobile interiors, and use more new technologies, new materials and new processes, especially the extensive application of nonmetallic materials and adhesives, which leads to the accumulation of pollutants in automobiles and harms human health. With the continuous improvement of the public’s environmental awareness and self-protection awareness, the public has higher expectations and stricter requirements for the air quality in the car, which is closely related to human health. In recent years, the environmental problems in the car have attracted much attention.

  The reporter noted that the car quality network data shows that the odor inside the car has become one of the top ten car quality hot issues from 2010 to August this year. Zhang Yue, director of the Automotive Quality Network Research Institute, even pointed out that consumers’ concern about the interior environment will reach its peak this year, which will be followed by advocating the elimination of pollution hazards to automobile enterprises with a "death-like attitude".

  "vehicle air pollution’s problem, a recommended standard before, but there is no mandatory standard, so what’s the problem? After consumers encounter problems, there is a basis for unresolved disputes, and the recommendation standard can not be implemented. " According to Guangsheng Song, director of the National Indoor Interior Environment and Environmental Protection Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, although some people in the industry paid attention to the indoor air quality in 2003, with the blowout development of the automobile market in previous years, the purpose of formulating the relevant standards for indoor air quality has changed from the initial prevention of shoddy automobile products to the stage of meeting consumers’ demands for the safe driving environment of automobile products.

  "We call for and look forward to the introduction of relevant mandatory national standards as soon as possible to effectively strengthen consumer protection." Chen Jian, director of the legal and theoretical research department of the China Consumers Association, said that the right to safety is the first right of consumers. In recent years, consumers have paid more and more attention to the air quality in cars, and related consumer disputes are more prominent. It is suggested that starting from the protection of consumers’ safety rights, we should keep pace with the times to study automotive materials and formulate standard limits. In order to protect consumers’ rights, we should improve the detection methods of in-use vehicles and promote the convenience of identification. Starting from standardizing the use of materials, the filing system of environmental protection report for vehicle materials is established. It is hoped that enterprises in the industry will issue an indoor air quality test report while selling cars to protect consumers’ right to know and choose.

  It is understood that after the implementation of the "Guide for Air Quality Assessment in Passenger Cars" (GB/T 27630-2011) issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the products launched by vehicle manufacturers have improved to some extent through the monitoring of China Consumers Association, but the effect is limited. Around 2017, consumers’ concern about the air quality inside the car peaked again, which also shows that consumers are paying more and more attention to the possible violation of their safety rights caused by this hidden danger.

  In-vehicle environmental detection is controversial, and it is difficult for consumers to defend their rights.

  Heshan, president of china law society Consumer Law Research Association, said that as far as automobile products are concerned, in some cases of rights protection, there is a dispute about whether they are luxury goods or consumer goods. In this case, when consumers encounter vehicle air pollution, the detection resistance becomes greater. He believes that once consumers think that their rights and interests are damaged, they should still advocate that family cars are also consumer goods and use relevant laws to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests.

  Specific to the identification and evaluation links and standards, Jian Chen frankly said that there are not many institutions with testing qualifications at present, and the testing costs are high, and some institutions do not issue testing reports to individuals, etc., which are all technical difficulties when consumers protect their rights. Another major factor affecting rights protection is how to prove the relationship between the car environment and the consumer’s illness. This requires relevant departments to carry out relevant epidemiological investigations and follow-up studies.

  In fact, another important factor that makes it difficult for consumers to defend their rights is the lack of mandatory standards. It is understood that the Guide for Air Quality Assessment in Passenger Cars (GB/T 27630-2011) issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Sampling and Determination Method of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes and Ketones in Cars (HJT 400-2007) issued by the State Environmental Protection Administration are authoritative testing standards and methods for evaluating air quality in cars. In the former, eight detection substances, including benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, and their limit values are specified.

  However, the former, as a recommended standard, cannot force all enterprises to provide qualified automobile products. In 2016, the Ministry of Environmental Protection issued the "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Air Quality in Passenger Cars" (draft for comments), and proposed that the recommended standard would be upgraded to a mandatory standard, and it is planned to be implemented on January 1, 2017, making it clear that all newly-finalized sales vehicles must meet the requirements of this standard. However, after two years, the mandatory standard has repeatedly broken its promise.

  All kinds of gaps between consumers and access to in-vehicle air quality testing have made it difficult for consumers to take legal proceedings to protect their rights. "In more than a dozen judicial cases of air quality in cars I have studied, no consumer has won the lawsuit." Jiang Suhua, a lawyer of Beijing Yingke Law Firm, bluntly said that this is not to say that consumers can’t win this kind of lawsuit, but there are too many links involved, and a slight negligence may lead to a loss of one link.

  In addition, another difficulty in indoor air quality detection lies in the diversity of pollutant sources. Zhang Jinliang, a researcher at china environmental science Research Institute, believes that the air pollution sources in cars can be basically divided into interior decoration and decoration. According to Zhang Yue, the direct pollution sources of indoor air quality are mainly the dashboard assembly, door trim panel, carpet, ceiling, automotive wiring harness and seat assembly. In addition to the accessories installed by consumers, the pollution sources may also come from the outside of the car and the substances emitted by the car.

  Improving the air quality inside the car requires multi-party participation.

  Jiang Jun, the propaganda director of the C-ECAP Management Center of China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., pointed out that after testing more than 700 models on the market, the project team found that the proportion of models that can meet the relevant provisions in the Guide for Air Quality Evaluation in Passenger Cars (GB/T 27630-2011) is basically 50%, which means that half of the models still fail to meet the recommended standards, and there is still room for improvement in the overall industry level.

  The reality is that some models with substandard air inside the car are still in circulation in the market. According to the research data of Gaode Map, taking Beijing as an example, each person spends 174 hours on commuting congestion every year. Aside from the proportion of public transport trips, it is certain that the time and the number of consumers staying in the car are increasing year by year, and the range of consumers affected by the environmental quality in the car is also expanding simultaneously.

  So, what is the latest development of such a long-awaited mandatory standard?

  According to Guangsheng Song, some indicators in the "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Air Quality in Passenger Cars (Draft for Comment)" are stricter, while others are relaxed. In order to improve the number of new energy vehicles, regulations on battery radiation have been added, but the timetable for upgrading to mandatory standards and implementing them is still unknown.

  In this regard, Jiang Suhua believes that both the recommendation standard and the mandatory standard can be used as the basis for the judge’s judgment. This is not to say that the introduction of mandatory standards is not urgent, but compared with the time of introduction, from a lawyer’s point of view, it is more meaningful to modify the content of standards and involve the threshold of data.

  For vehicle manufacturers, the unanimous view of the guests attending the meeting is that improving the air quality inside the vehicle should start from the source, which requires enterprises to respect consumers and reduce pollution sources in product definition, product design, supplier selection, manufacturing, transportation and sales. As Wu Gaohan, former deputy secretary-general of China Consumers Association, said, consumers in China have now entered the stage of developing and enjoying consumption. At this stage, consumers’ pursuit of a better life is unstoppable, and the pursuit of quality consumption is unstoppable. Health is the most important part of a better life. Without health, there is no better life, and without health, there is no quality consumption. (Legal Daily, all-media reporter Cai Yanhong)

Ten years ago, he quietly left after saving many people by the mourning hall. Ten years later, the parties finally found a benefactor.

Gao Wei (second from right) toasts the elders of the Huang family. Chengdu business daily

"Come on, second brother, let’s go!"

At noon on January 30th, at the invitation of Huang Bangyin’s family, Gao Wei made a special trip to Shifang to have a reunion dinner. During the dinner, he was full of laughter and joy. Ten years ago, Gao Wei saved more than 10 relatives and friends who were poisoned by carbon monoxide while attending a wake for Huang Bangyin’s lover. After leaving Shifang, Gao Wei changed his job, went to other cities and changed his mobile phone number, and lost contact with Huang Bangyin.

This life-saving kindness has always been remembered by the Huang Bangyin family. On the tenth anniversary of his lover’s death, Huang Bangyin’s family searched in many ways and finally found Gao Wei.


More than 10 people were poisoned by carbon monoxide. He left quietly after saving people.

Huang Bangyin of Shigu Village, Shigu Town, shifang city is 85 years old, and his lover died in the twelfth lunar month of 2009. Ten years ago, on the 25th day of the twelfth lunar month, he will never forget it. It was the day before his lover was buried. More than ten people who were resting in the next room of the mourning hall burned steel charcoal to keep warm, and all of them were poisoned by carbon monoxide. "If Gao Wei didn’t find it in time, more than 10 lives would be gone!" Although it has been ten years, he still has a lingering fear when talking about the scene at that time. When it comes to the thrilling place, the old man’s mouth twitched.

Huang Ruofang, the fifth daughter of Gao Wei and Huang Bangyin, used to be a colleague and friend of the same unit. When Gao Wei learned of Huang Ruofang’s mother’s death, he took his lover from Chengdu to Shifang to pay homage and express condolences.

Ten years ago that night, Gao Wei went to Shigu Town, shifang city, Huang Ruofang’s hometown.

Gao Wei and several other young people of the Huang family have been vigiling beside the mourning hall, while others are resting in the next room. Because it is too cold, more than ten people who are resting in the next room burn steel charcoal to keep warm.

At about 4 am on the 26th of the twelfth lunar month, an accident happened.

"At that time, there were 10 people falling in the house, and they couldn’t wake up when they shouted." Gao Wei recalled that the temperature was low that night, and some relatives and friends of the Huang family went to the next room to warm themselves. It was about 4 o’clock in the morning, and a door opposite him opened and I saw someone lying at the door. At first, I thought I was drunk and felt something was wrong, so I went over to have a look and found that the air in the room was wrong. More than 10 people were lying on the ground and there were several pots of charcoal burning in the room.

Found suspected carbon monoxide poisoning, Gao Wei hurriedly shouted "save people quickly", and was busy opening the doors and windows of the house to ventilate, so that his wife could call 110 and 120 emergency calls.

"Looking at 10 relatives and friends lying in the house, my legs are scared." Huang Ruohua, the second son of Huang Bangyin, said that on the night of the incident, some relatives and friends stayed at home after various ceremonies were completed. Some are leaning on the sofa in the living room, while others are crouching in the chair, warming themselves by the fire and waiting for the next day. "When I heard shouting for help, the first reaction was that the mourning hall was on fire." He came out and saw that Gao Wei and others were busy carrying people out and rescuing them. "I was worried when I saw how many people were carried out." Huang Ruohua said.

Gao Wei, Huang Ruohua and others rushed to carry more than 10 relatives and friends out of the house. Some relatives and friends are still conscious, while others can’t wake up. Fortunately, after the alarm, 120 ambulances rushed to the scene. Everyone is busy sending more than 10 people to the car on the roadside a few hundred meters away. More than 10 relatives and friends were sent to the hospital for rescue.

Fortunately, it was discovered in time, and after the rescue, relatives and friends woke up one after another. After rescuing more than 10 relatives and friends of the Huang family, Gao Wei and his wife left quietly the next morning in order not to add trouble to the Huang family. When Huang Ruofang finished handling things at home, she was ready to thank Gao Wei, and Gao Wei went on a business trip again. After so many years, Gao Wei’s work changed, and after the mobile phone was replaced, Huang Ruofang lost contact with Gao Wei.


I finally got in touch with him and invited him back to "home" for a reunion dinner.

Not long ago, on Huang Bangyin’s birthday, all five children came back to celebrate their old father’s birthday. During the dinner, I talked about the tenth anniversary of my mother’s death. In the local countryside, the tradition of worshipping predecessors before the Spring Festival is preserved. Huang Bangyin has always had a wish to thank Gao Wei, the benefactor who met once, for having a reunion dinner together.

The family found the relevant departments, and Huang Ruofang contacted his old colleagues in many ways. Just two or three days ago, he finally contacted Gao Wei. Knowing that the Huang family wanted to invite him and his family back to the Youth League, Gao Wei readily agreed.

Yesterday morning, Gao Wei drove, took his wife and little daughter with him, and arrived at Huang Bangyin’s house at 10 o’clock in the morning. Huang Bangyin and his five children have moved out of the old yard and rebuilt their new houses.

After a brief greeting, Gao Wei, accompanied by the Huang family, went to the old yard. Gao Wei put incense on the grave of Huang Bangyin’s lover. The Huang family specially booked a banquet in a famous local restaurant, and warmly entertained the savior from afar. Although we haven’t seen each other for many years, when it comes to the past, both sides have endless words and endless drinks. In order to express his friendship with the Huang family, Gao Wei specially brought good wine to Huang Bangyin and gave red envelopes to the children of the Huang family.

"The Huang family really misses their feelings, which makes them feel at home." Gao Wei said. In a flash, 10 years passed. What changes is the living environment and the appearance of everyone, but what remains unchanged is the current situation.

(Original title: Ten years ago, after saving many people by taking a new mourning hall, he quietly left. Ten years later, the people finally reported that they had found a benefactor and celebrated the reunion.)

Lonely Wuhan’s self-admiration: the national people’s smell of "Wu" turns pale vs Wuhan’s 40,000 family dinners.

On the morning of January 21st, according to the relevant provisions of the Law on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases, the National Health and Wellness Commission decided to include pneumonia infected by novel coronavirus in the Class B management of legal infectious diseases and take preventive and control measures for Class A infectious diseases. People’s governments at all levels, health administrative departments, other government departments and medical and health institutions can take a series of prevention and control measures according to law, such as patient isolation treatment and close contact isolation medical observation, to jointly prevent and control the spread of pneumonia infected in novel coronavirus.

This means that the prevention and control of novel coronavirus has entered the highest level.

As of 7: 30 on the 21st, 219 cases of novel coronavirus have been confirmed in China (198 cases in Wuhan, 5 cases in Beijing, 14 cases in Guangdong and 2 cases in Shanghai). Thailand, Japan and South Korea have also found one confirmed case of novel coronavirus’s pneumonia.

Except for Wuhan, the first confirmed patient found in other areas all had "Wuhan experience".

To be sure, Wuhan is the pathogen of pneumonia in novel coronavirus.

Academician Zhong Nanshan, the leader of the high-level expert group in National Health Commission, said in an interview with CCTV that "the pneumonia infected by novel coronavirus is definitely from person to person". When talking about how to prevent it, Zhong Nanshan said: "The key points are prevention. It is very important not to go to Wuhan without special circumstances."


▲ Academician Zhong Nanshan was interviewed by CCTV.

Ceng Guang, a member of National Health Commission’s high-level expert group, also made the same suggestion. In an interview with a CCTV reporter, he said: "We hope that … we can not go to Wuhan now, and Wuhan people can not come out. This is our contribution. This is not an official call, it is the suggestion of our expert group. "

The eyes of the whole world are focused on Wuhan, paying attention to the epidemic prevention and control in Wuhan. In the circle of friends, it has reached the point where the smell of "Wu" has changed color.


But in the early days of the epidemic, Wuhan people themselves did not realize the seriousness of the epidemic.

Li Gang, director and chief physician of Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said in an interview with the media that, combined with the clinical manifestations of known patients, the medical observation reports of close contacts, and the results of previous epidemiological investigations, "the current comprehensive judgment is that the epidemic situation is not contagious in novel coronavirus, and the possibility of limited human-to-human transmission is not ruled out, but the risk of continuous human-to-human transmission is low."

Perhaps it is such optimistic remarks that have influenced the judgment of Wuhan people. The people of Wuhan should eat and drink, and buy new year’s dinner as usual. Novel coronavirus, as if it didn’t affect the mood of Chinese New Year.


The Wuhan community is still organizing large-scale dinner activities involving 40,000 families.

Wuhan Cultural Tourism Commission is still distributing 200,000 free scenic spot travel vouchers.


It can only be said that the people of Wuhan are really big-hearted!

As Academician Zhong Nanshan said, the virus is not terrible, but the most terrible thing is that you don’t take precautions against the virus at all, and you are proud of your attitude of not taking precautions.


However, with the severity of the epidemic situation and the popularization of relevant knowledge in novel coronavirus, we can see that people’s awareness of disease prevention is increasing, and the prevention and control measures of relevant departments are also improving.

On January 20th, Wuhan established the novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia epidemic prevention and control headquarters to lead and direct the city’s epidemic prevention and control work. The list of 61 fever clinic medical institutions and 9 designated medical institutions was published; The activities of benefiting the people through tourism originally planned for the Spring Festival have also been postponed.


On the afternoon of January 21st, Wuhan upgraded its disease control measures again. The reporter learned from the Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Commission that in order to resolutely curb the spread of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus infection, Wuhan has strengthened control over people entering and leaving Wuhan.

The Wuhan tourism team does not go out in groups, and the public security traffic control department conducts spot checks on private vehicles entering and leaving Wuhan to check whether the trunk carries live birds and wild animals. Strengthen the temperature detection of passengers leaving Han; Register passengers with fever, distribute brochures and masks, go through the formalities of refund or change of visa free of charge, guide referral to medical institutions in the jurisdiction, and make registration reports.



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The national lottery abandoned more than 2.5 billion prizes, and Hunan, Guangdong and Jiangsu took the top three! Where did the money go?

  Zhongxin Jingwei Client September 5 th (Dong Xiangyi) The lottery fund account book is related to the rights and interests of lottery players and public welfare undertakings, so the annual lottery sales situation has attracted everyone’s attention. According to data released by the Ministry of Finance a few days ago, in 2018, 51,147,173 yuan of lottery tickets were issued and sold nationwide. The overdue prize money was 2,512.77 million yuan, among which, Hunan, Guangdong and Jiangsu ranked the top three in the country. The topic of "more than 2.5 billion bonuses overdue in 2018" has also sparked heated discussions on the Internet. Netizens are also very curious about how this huge bonus will be disposed of.

  Data Map: Photo by Xin Jingwei Dong Xiangyi in the website of China Welfare Lottery Issuance Management Center

  The national lottery abandoned more than 2.5 billion, and Hunan, Guangdong and Jiangsu were among the top three.

  Lottery refers to the certificate issued by the state in order to raise social welfare funds and promote the development of social welfare undertakings, sold according to law, purchased by natural persons voluntarily, and obtained the chance of winning the prize according to specific rules.

  Lottery funds are divided into three categories: lottery bonus, lottery issuance fee and lottery public welfare fund. Lottery bonuses are used to pay lottery winners; Lottery issuance expenses are used to pay the business expenses of lottery institutions and the sales expenses of consignment agents; The lottery public welfare fund shall be turned over to the state for social welfare undertakings.

  According to data from the Ministry of Finance, in 2018, 511,471.73 million yuan of lottery tickets were issued and sold nationwide. The overdue prize money was 2,512.77 million yuan, and in 2018, a total of 133,874.98 million yuan of lottery public welfare funds were raised.

  The Zhongxin Jingwei client combed and found that from the ranking of abandonment prizes in 31 provinces in 2018, Hunan was the region with the most abandonment prizes, reaching 760 million yuan; Guangdong and Jiangsu ranked second and third, with 175 million yuan and 142 million yuan respectively. In addition, there are six provinces, including Shandong, that give up prizes of more than 100 million yuan, including 135 million yuan in Shandong, 129 million yuan in Zhejiang and 125 million yuan in Yunnan.

  Source: Announcement of the Ministry of Finance

  In 2018, the province with the least lottery abandonment prize was Qinghai, which was 8.01 million yuan. Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing gave up prizes of 70.56 million yuan, 25.2 million yuan, 43.68 million yuan and 32.57 million yuan respectively last year.

  It is worth noting that according to the data previously disclosed by the Ministry of Finance, in 2017, the national overdue prize money was 1,700.17 million yuan. In 2018, this figure increased by 47.8% year-on-year.

  Netizen: No, you can give it to me.

  There is also a lot of discussion on the Internet about the abandonment of the lottery in 2018. Some netizens ridiculed: "Why do you want to give up and send it to me?" Others said, "I was so scared that I quickly looked at the only lottery ticket I bought."

  A netizen recalled, "In June this year, there was an acquaintance here who lost more than 8 million people. Now everyone we know knows about it. We bought a villa and changed cars. In recent days, someone has always mentioned him from time to time. I am also sour, so I don’t have to drink water every day, and I have enough saliva."

  User comments screenshot

  @l Riding a pig for a ride L: Why did you win the lottery ticket? You can give it to me if you don’t want it.

  @ Huiwenhuang and Li Kele: Hunan Spicy Moduo abandoned the prize, which may be related to the lottery ticket I lost.

  @ A box of scented tea: 2.5 billion, enough for me to spend several lifetimes.

  @ Qikelu: Trying to trick me into buying lottery tickets again.

  @ 京京京京: Yes … … Still not? I bought it once last year, but I don’t know if it won, and I forgot to look at it … … … … Gee, I may be one step away from the rich.

  @ 京京京京: Pay attention to vertigo. Tick "five times" and vertigo becomes "five periods". If you don’t win in the current period, the lottery ticket will be lost.

  User comments screenshot

  Some netizens believe that "it is normal to abandon the prize. Some lottery players are too casual when buying lottery tickets. They don’t remember to check the lottery number. Some people don’t know where to throw the lottery ticket after buying it. Many grand prizes have missed the effective time to receive the prize. People like me who dream of winning the prize will not abandon the prize. "

  In fact, everyone is generally concerned about how this huge abandonment bonus of 2.5 billion yuan will be "digested". It is understood that Article 57 of the Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Lottery Management Regulations stipulates that the bonuses that have not been redeemed within the time limit shall be included in the lottery public welfare fund, and shall be settled and collected by the lottery sales organization and turned over to the provincial finance, all of which shall be reserved for local use. In other words, the 2.5 billion yuan lottery discard bonus will be disposed of and distributed by local financial departments.

  What are the rules for lottery redemption?

  I believe that many lottery players don’t want to regret giving up the prize because they missed the redemption period. What should we pay attention to about lottery redemption? According to the regulations of China Welfare Lottery Issuance Management Center, after the implementation of the Regulations on Lottery Management, the deadline for redemption will be extended to 60 natural days after the lottery.

  Redemption period

  Lottery winners should redeem their prizes within 60 natural days from the date of drawing. On the last day of the redemption period, if there is a national legal holiday or the lottery market is closed, it will be postponed to the first working day after the legal holiday or the lottery market is closed. Such regulations protect the interests of lottery players and winners, and are more humane.

  Redemption place

  The regulations of lottery agencies around the country on the redemption location are not completely consistent. The specific redemption location can be found in local lottery agencies or lottery sales outlets.

  Protection of winners

  In the impression of ordinary people, lottery winners are generally armed to the teeth, with no shortage of hats, glasses and masks, and some even wear wigs. After the promulgation of the Regulations on Lottery Management, it is clear that lottery issuers, lottery sales organizations, lottery agents and other personnel who know the personal information of lottery winners because of their positions or business convenience will protect the personal information of lottery winners. In the face of media interviews, winners who refuse to be interviewed or ask for makeup before being interviewed should follow the winners’ personal wishes. At the same time, lottery agencies also take the initiative to protect the personal information of the winners during publicity or interviews. Without the consent of the winners themselves, the personal information of the winners may not be released.

  Donations should be voluntary.

  Many grand prize winners, in order to express their feelings of "benefiting from public welfare and giving back to public welfare", can donate some winning prizes to repay the society and continue to support social welfare undertakings. However, this donation behavior should be based on the personal wishes of the winners. The Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Regulations on Lottery Management clearly stipulates that lottery issuers, lottery sales organizations, lottery agents and other staff members shall not ask lottery winners to donate winning prizes for any reason and in any way against their own wishes.

  It must be paid in RMB.

  The Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Regulations on Lottery Management stipulates that the winning prize of lottery tickets shall not be paid in currencies other than RMB, in kind or in multiple installments. In the consignment contract signed with the consignment agent, it is also required not to sell lottery tickets or win prizes to minors.

  On the morning of October 13th, 2014, in Shanxi Welfare Lottery Distribution Center, the third prize winner in the history of China lottery mysteriously appeared in cartoon costume to win the prize, which attracted many media to interview. The prize money is as high as 520 million, which is the third prize in China lottery history. China News Agency issued Wei Liang photo

  The lottery market grew steadily.

  Since the welfare lottery was first issued in 1987, China’s lottery market has maintained steady growth. Statistics show that in 1987, China’s welfare lottery sold 17 million yuan in the first year, and by 2018, the national lottery sales exceeded 500 billion yuan.

  According to data from the Ministry of Finance, in 2018, a total of 511.472 billion yuan of lottery tickets were sold nationwide, a year-on-year increase of 19.9%. Among them, the sales of welfare lottery institutions was 224.556 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 3.5%; The sales of sports lottery institutions reached 286.916 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 36.8%. According to the statistics of Chuancai Securities, from 1987 to 2018, the annual growth rate of national lottery sales reached 39.4%.

  Source: Chuancai Securities Research Report

  In addition, in the past decade, despite the negative growth of lottery sales in 2015 due to the influence of Internet issuance supervision, the annual growth rate of national lottery sales still reached 17.0%.

  In terms of lottery types, the sales of welfare lottery in China’s lottery market has been relatively high for a long time, but in recent years, with the good performance of sports lottery, the proportion of the two is gradually approaching. Especially in the past three years (2016-2018), the growth rate of sports lottery was significantly higher than that of welfare lottery, which made the proportion of sports lottery in total lottery sales increase from 48% to 56%.

  In terms of specific color types, lottery digital lottery is the most important lottery variety in China’s lottery market, and its proportion in total sales remains at 50%-65%; At the same time, quiz lottery has continued to grow in recent years.

  According to the insiders, the contribution of China lottery industry to society is not only reflected in the public welfare fund, but also plays an important role in fiscal revenue, labor employment, and promoting the development of related industries.

  However, some experts believe that there are still some problems in the lottery industry, such as the market development can not fully meet the demand, the management level and standardization need to be improved, and the research ability and personnel training are lacking. It is suggested that the demand of the public should be better met from the perspective of supply, and new technologies and channels should be paid attention to and considered for application in order to promote the healthy development of the industry.

  In the future, as China’s lottery industry further clarifies government management functions, improves market operation norms, and strengthens the supervision of industry access qualifications, the lottery industry is expected to achieve sustainable development. (Zhongxin Jingwei APP)

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