Interior environment becomes a hot spot of automobile quality complaints. Experts call for the introduction of mandatory standards for interior pollution as soon as possible.

  According to the latest data of "Analysis Report on Indoor Air Quality Problems" released by Chezhi. com, from 2010 to August 2019, consumers complained about the odor inside the car for 9,300 times. From January to August this year alone, the number of related complaints reached 1,646 times. It is predicted that the number of complaints in the whole year will reach a record high.

  "The lack of relevant control standards in the interior environment, lack of legal basis and lack of supervision have led to increasing air quality problems in the car." Become the consensus of experts. Recently, at the "Third March 15th Automobile Consumption Forum and Symposium on Promoting the Issuance of Compulsory Standards for Indoor Pollution" sponsored by china law society Consumer Law Research Association and co-organized by Chezhi. com, participants in drafting relevant standards for indoor environment, environmental experts, legal professionals, scholars and senior experts in the automobile industry had in-depth discussions on the existing problems of indoor air quality, the reasons for the delay in the introduction of compulsory standards, and how consumers should safeguard their rights and interests.

  The smell inside the car has become one of the hot issues of automobile quality.

  According to a folk statistic in 2017, there are more than 4,600 models on sale in China automobile market. Combined with the faster and faster iteration speed of models, there will be more models on sale at present. According to the data released by the Ministry of Public Security, as of June this year, the number of cars in China has reached 250 million.

  With the rapid improvement of modernization, people’s dependence on vehicles has become increasingly obvious. In addition to homes and workplaces, vehicles have become one of the main places where human beings stay. On the other hand, in order to meet consumers’ requirements for automobile comfort, manufacturers constantly improve the structural design of automobile interiors, and use more new technologies, new materials and new processes, especially the extensive application of nonmetallic materials and adhesives, which leads to the accumulation of pollutants in automobiles and harms human health. With the continuous improvement of the public’s environmental awareness and self-protection awareness, the public has higher expectations and stricter requirements for the air quality in the car, which is closely related to human health. In recent years, the environmental problems in the car have attracted much attention.

  The reporter noted that the car quality network data shows that the odor inside the car has become one of the top ten car quality hot issues from 2010 to August this year. Zhang Yue, director of the Automotive Quality Network Research Institute, even pointed out that consumers’ concern about the interior environment will reach its peak this year, which will be followed by advocating the elimination of pollution hazards to automobile enterprises with a "death-like attitude".

  "vehicle air pollution’s problem, a recommended standard before, but there is no mandatory standard, so what’s the problem? After consumers encounter problems, there is a basis for unresolved disputes, and the recommendation standard can not be implemented. " According to Guangsheng Song, director of the National Indoor Interior Environment and Environmental Protection Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, although some people in the industry paid attention to the indoor air quality in 2003, with the blowout development of the automobile market in previous years, the purpose of formulating the relevant standards for indoor air quality has changed from the initial prevention of shoddy automobile products to the stage of meeting consumers’ demands for the safe driving environment of automobile products.

  "We call for and look forward to the introduction of relevant mandatory national standards as soon as possible to effectively strengthen consumer protection." Chen Jian, director of the legal and theoretical research department of the China Consumers Association, said that the right to safety is the first right of consumers. In recent years, consumers have paid more and more attention to the air quality in cars, and related consumer disputes are more prominent. It is suggested that starting from the protection of consumers’ safety rights, we should keep pace with the times to study automotive materials and formulate standard limits. In order to protect consumers’ rights, we should improve the detection methods of in-use vehicles and promote the convenience of identification. Starting from standardizing the use of materials, the filing system of environmental protection report for vehicle materials is established. It is hoped that enterprises in the industry will issue an indoor air quality test report while selling cars to protect consumers’ right to know and choose.

  It is understood that after the implementation of the "Guide for Air Quality Assessment in Passenger Cars" (GB/T 27630-2011) issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the products launched by vehicle manufacturers have improved to some extent through the monitoring of China Consumers Association, but the effect is limited. Around 2017, consumers’ concern about the air quality inside the car peaked again, which also shows that consumers are paying more and more attention to the possible violation of their safety rights caused by this hidden danger.

  In-vehicle environmental detection is controversial, and it is difficult for consumers to defend their rights.

  Heshan, president of china law society Consumer Law Research Association, said that as far as automobile products are concerned, in some cases of rights protection, there is a dispute about whether they are luxury goods or consumer goods. In this case, when consumers encounter vehicle air pollution, the detection resistance becomes greater. He believes that once consumers think that their rights and interests are damaged, they should still advocate that family cars are also consumer goods and use relevant laws to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests.

  Specific to the identification and evaluation links and standards, Jian Chen frankly said that there are not many institutions with testing qualifications at present, and the testing costs are high, and some institutions do not issue testing reports to individuals, etc., which are all technical difficulties when consumers protect their rights. Another major factor affecting rights protection is how to prove the relationship between the car environment and the consumer’s illness. This requires relevant departments to carry out relevant epidemiological investigations and follow-up studies.

  In fact, another important factor that makes it difficult for consumers to defend their rights is the lack of mandatory standards. It is understood that the Guide for Air Quality Assessment in Passenger Cars (GB/T 27630-2011) issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Sampling and Determination Method of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes and Ketones in Cars (HJT 400-2007) issued by the State Environmental Protection Administration are authoritative testing standards and methods for evaluating air quality in cars. In the former, eight detection substances, including benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, and their limit values are specified.

  However, the former, as a recommended standard, cannot force all enterprises to provide qualified automobile products. In 2016, the Ministry of Environmental Protection issued the "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Air Quality in Passenger Cars" (draft for comments), and proposed that the recommended standard would be upgraded to a mandatory standard, and it is planned to be implemented on January 1, 2017, making it clear that all newly-finalized sales vehicles must meet the requirements of this standard. However, after two years, the mandatory standard has repeatedly broken its promise.

  All kinds of gaps between consumers and access to in-vehicle air quality testing have made it difficult for consumers to take legal proceedings to protect their rights. "In more than a dozen judicial cases of air quality in cars I have studied, no consumer has won the lawsuit." Jiang Suhua, a lawyer of Beijing Yingke Law Firm, bluntly said that this is not to say that consumers can’t win this kind of lawsuit, but there are too many links involved, and a slight negligence may lead to a loss of one link.

  In addition, another difficulty in indoor air quality detection lies in the diversity of pollutant sources. Zhang Jinliang, a researcher at china environmental science Research Institute, believes that the air pollution sources in cars can be basically divided into interior decoration and decoration. According to Zhang Yue, the direct pollution sources of indoor air quality are mainly the dashboard assembly, door trim panel, carpet, ceiling, automotive wiring harness and seat assembly. In addition to the accessories installed by consumers, the pollution sources may also come from the outside of the car and the substances emitted by the car.

  Improving the air quality inside the car requires multi-party participation.

  Jiang Jun, the propaganda director of the C-ECAP Management Center of China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., pointed out that after testing more than 700 models on the market, the project team found that the proportion of models that can meet the relevant provisions in the Guide for Air Quality Evaluation in Passenger Cars (GB/T 27630-2011) is basically 50%, which means that half of the models still fail to meet the recommended standards, and there is still room for improvement in the overall industry level.

  The reality is that some models with substandard air inside the car are still in circulation in the market. According to the research data of Gaode Map, taking Beijing as an example, each person spends 174 hours on commuting congestion every year. Aside from the proportion of public transport trips, it is certain that the time and the number of consumers staying in the car are increasing year by year, and the range of consumers affected by the environmental quality in the car is also expanding simultaneously.

  So, what is the latest development of such a long-awaited mandatory standard?

  According to Guangsheng Song, some indicators in the "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Air Quality in Passenger Cars (Draft for Comment)" are stricter, while others are relaxed. In order to improve the number of new energy vehicles, regulations on battery radiation have been added, but the timetable for upgrading to mandatory standards and implementing them is still unknown.

  In this regard, Jiang Suhua believes that both the recommendation standard and the mandatory standard can be used as the basis for the judge’s judgment. This is not to say that the introduction of mandatory standards is not urgent, but compared with the time of introduction, from a lawyer’s point of view, it is more meaningful to modify the content of standards and involve the threshold of data.

  For vehicle manufacturers, the unanimous view of the guests attending the meeting is that improving the air quality inside the vehicle should start from the source, which requires enterprises to respect consumers and reduce pollution sources in product definition, product design, supplier selection, manufacturing, transportation and sales. As Wu Gaohan, former deputy secretary-general of China Consumers Association, said, consumers in China have now entered the stage of developing and enjoying consumption. At this stage, consumers’ pursuit of a better life is unstoppable, and the pursuit of quality consumption is unstoppable. Health is the most important part of a better life. Without health, there is no better life, and without health, there is no quality consumption. (Legal Daily, all-media reporter Cai Yanhong)

In 2020, lottery sales will drop by 20%, falling below 150 billion! Expert: Accelerate legislation to reshape the image of Fucai.

Public welfare is the lifeline of lottery.
Welfare lottery is an important source of funds for the development of social welfare in China: every time 1 yuan Welfare Lottery is sold, 0.2971 yuan will be used as the lottery public welfare fund to invest in social welfare and public welfare undertakings.
Under the strong supervision policy of the state, the lottery industry has arrived in winter and spring is still far away.
After the audit storm in 2015, the ban on Internet lottery in 2018, and the strict restrictions on fast-opening games in 2019, and the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, the lottery sales in China dropped by over 20% in 2020.
On February 5th, the data of "China Welfare Lottery Development Report (2019)" released by the Welfare Lottery Research Group of China Academy of Social Sciences showed that from its issuance in 1987 to December 31st, 2019, a total of 2,210.964 billion yuan of welfare lottery tickets were sold nationwide, and 656.865 billion yuan of lottery public welfare funds were raised, with a raising rate of 29.71%.
Welfare lottery is an important source of funds for the development of social welfare undertakings in China: every time 1 yuan Welfare Lottery is sold, 0.2971 yuan will be used as the lottery public welfare fund to invest in social welfare and public welfare undertakings, directly and indirectly benefiting hundreds of millions of people, creating tens of billions of tax revenue and creating more than 400,000 jobs.
How should the lottery industry get out of the strange circle of "chaos as soon as it is released, and death as soon as it is managed"?
Fall below 150 billion
On January 22nd, official website, the Ministry of Finance, disclosed the "report card" of the national lottery market sales last year.
From January to December, 2020, the national lottery sales totaled 333.951 billion yuan, a year-on-year decrease of 88.103 billion yuan or 20.9%. Among them, the sales of welfare lottery institutions was 144.488 billion yuan, a year-on-year decrease of 46.750 billion yuan or 24.4%; The sales of sports lottery institutions reached 189.463 billion yuan, a year-on-year decrease of 41.352 billion yuan or 17.9%. Compared with 511.472 billion yuan in 2018, the "achievements" in 2020 can be described as bleak.
He Hui, an associate professor at the Business School of China Academy of Social Sciences and editor-in-chief of the Blue Book of Welfare Lottery, said in an interview with China Philanthropist that the overall decline in lottery sales last year was due to the epidemic situation, which led to the stagnation of lottery sales for a long time, and the government’s further supervision of the lottery market in 2020, which gradually stopped the sales of video lottery tickets, and stricter sales restrictions were imposed on high-frequency quick-opening lottery tickets and quiz lottery tickets from 2019.
"The reason for the decline of welfare lottery tickets is mainly that video lottery tickets and high-frequency fast-opening games were originally important products of welfare lottery tickets, accounting for a relatively large proportion of total sales."He Hui said.
In fact, since 2019, Fucai sales have begun to drop sharply. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Finance, in 2019, from January to December, a total of 422.053 billion yuan of lottery tickets were sold nationwide, a year-on-year decrease of 89.418 billion yuan or 17.5%. Among them, the sales of welfare lottery institutions was 191.238 billion yuan, a year-on-year decrease of 33.318 billion yuan or 14.8%.
Obviously, the epidemic has made lottery sales worse, but the main reason is that the government has strengthened supervision over the lottery industry.
Lottery is both entertaining and public welfare. Faced with the tempting "cake", many companies are scrambling to join the food fight.
At the peak of 2014, there were about 300 domestic Internet lottery companies, and more than 100 million users bought lottery tickets through Internet channels. This has also created a "no threshold" and "low cost" Internet lottery market, which is a mixed situation.
From January to December, 2020, the national lottery sales totaled 333.951 billion yuan, a year-on-year decrease of 88.103 billion yuan or 20.9%.
In 2015, after the national special audit of lottery funds, relevant departments strengthened the supervision and management of the lottery market, and also strengthened the investigation and punishment of unauthorized use of the Internet to sell lottery tickets. Since then, the growth rate of lottery sales in China has declined. However,After a period of time, illegal phenomena such as unauthorized use of the Internet to sell lottery tickets have slowly risen, irrational lottery purchases have gradually increased, and some chaos in the lottery market has reappeared.
In August 2018, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the General Administration of Sports classified "welfare lottery tickets and sports lottery tickets sold by the Internet without authorization" as illegal lottery tickets when revising the Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Regulations on Lottery Management. This is the first time in China’s lottery-related laws and regulations that unauthorized use of the Internet to sell lottery tickets has been clearly defined as illegal lottery tickets.
Defining illegal Internet lottery sales as illegal lottery tickets has also greatly shocked all illegal Internet lottery platforms and business owners. In September 2018, a number of illegal Internet lottery platforms took the initiative to suspend related services. The revised Rules for the Implementation of the Lottery Management Regulations came into effect on October 1, 2018. Since then, the phenomenon of illegal internet lottery sales has disappeared in a large area.
He Hui told China Philanthropist that there are many reasons for the relevant departments to strengthen the supervision of the welfare lottery market, such as anti-addiction, anti-money laundering and many other reasons, which are conducive to reshaping the public welfare image of welfare lottery. However, it has also exposed some problems such as unsmooth lottery management system and mechanism, imperfect market operation, unclear development orientation of welfare lottery and lack of stable market expectation for a long time.
Facing the multi-dimensional market dilemma and deep-seated development problems, how to deal with the relationship between market development and social responsibility of welfare lottery?
He Hui suggested,First of all, we should accelerate the legislation of lottery law and deepen the reform of lottery operation mechanism.
The Regulations on Lottery Management promulgated and implemented in 2009 is only an administrative regulation. At present, the National People’s Congress has begun the legislative process of the Lottery Law. Promulgating a relatively complete lottery law as soon as possible is an important prerequisite for the healthy development of the lottery industry.
Secondly, it is necessary to rationally divide the lottery market, explore the separation of management and operation, promote the professional and market-oriented operation of lottery institutions, and establish an effective incentive and restraint mechanism. Further standardize the management of lottery funds and adjust the distribution ratio of central and local public welfare funds. Explore the establishment of a fault-tolerant mechanism in the process of reform, innovation and development, and further clarify the regulatory responsibilities of local financial departments.
Public welfare is more beneficial.
The original intention of lottery was to raise public welfare funds to solve social problems, and the public welfare attribute is the lifeline of lottery survival and development.
Lottery public welfare fund is one of the forms of non-tax revenue of the government. According to the national regulations, it is the net income after deducting the reward bonus and issuance funds from the sales income obtained by issuing lottery tickets. Take the two-color ball as an example, 51% of its sales are used as lottery bonuses, 13% as distribution fees and 36% as lottery public welfare funds. Every time a lottery player buys a lottery two-color ball or a lottery ticket with a bet of 2 yuan, he will be given 70 cents as a tribute to the national public welfare undertakings.
On May 8, 2019, Xinzhou Primary School, Longlin Autonomous County, Baise, Guangxi, launched the "Angel Tour Screening and Rescue Action for Children with Poor Congenital Heart Disease". The China Red Cross Foundation has set up a special fund to help children with congenital heart disease from poor families, which has been supported by the National Lottery Public Welfare Fund.
The data shows that in the past 30 years, China has raised more than one trillion yuan of lottery public welfare funds from lottery sales revenue, which was mainly used for civil welfare and sports in the early days.In recent years, the total investment of the national social security fund has accounted for 1/3 of the financial resources, and the rest is mainly used for social welfare undertakings, including pension, medical care, the Red Cross, the disabled, poverty alleviation, legal aid, disaster relief and post-disaster recovery and reconstruction, which has become an important financial support for the development of social welfare undertakings.
According to the allocation policy of lottery public welfare fund approved by the State Council, the lottery public welfare fund is allocated between the central and local governments at a ratio of 50:50. The central centralized lottery public welfare fund is distributed among the national social security fund, the central special lottery public welfare fund, the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the General Administration of Sports in the proportion of 60%, 30%, 5% and 5% respectively.
According to the above distribution policy, in 2019, the lottery public welfare fund was allocated to the National Social Security Fund Council of 46.428 billion yuan to supplement the National Social Security Fund; 17.592 billion yuan was allocated to the central special lottery public welfare fund for social welfare projects approved by the State Council; 3.869 billion yuan was allocated to the Ministry of Civil Affairs to fund projects such as the construction of social welfare facilities for the elderly, the disabled, orphans and people with special difficulties; 3.869 billion yuan was allocated to the State Sports General Administration to support mass sports and competitive sports development projects.
The use of public welfare fund is a process of policy perfection, from paying attention to investment, service and benefit. It is necessary to further optimize the rules of lottery public welfare fund distribution based on existing practice.
He Hui suggested that, first, when selecting projects and allocating public welfare funds, we should solicit and bid for projects in a larger scope as far as possible to understand where the social needs are, and consider improving the professionalism and efficiency of implementation through market competition. Second, when the public welfare fund is allocated to specific projects and then implemented, it is necessary to scientifically evaluate the performance. This kind of evaluation should take into account not only the quantitative indicators of evaluation, but also the indicators that are difficult to quantify but very important.
"At present, the social impact of welfare lottery is weak, which is largely related to the low social effect of the use of public welfare funds in a broad sense."He Hui said that we need to pay special attention to the social effects of the use of public welfare funds. While ensuring the public welfare fund investment in traditional welfare projects, we should also strengthen and increase the investment in public welfare projects with wider social effects.
Source: China Philanthropist Magazine.
Image source:China News Photo Network