Huawei Yuntianqi deeply interprets Pangu Big Model: Let AI empower thousands of industries.

[Global Network Technology Comprehensive Report]For most people, AlphaGo defeated Li Shishi, the world’s top chess player, and AlphaMaster defeated Ke Jie in Go, which made us truly realize the arrival of the era of artificial intelligence. Subsequently, the market and industry were excited about it, and startups around the development and application of "artificial intelligence" emerged constantly, and traditional enterprises also entered the market one after another, using artificial intelligence technology to open up new market demand. In just a few years, people’s cognition of artificial intelligence has changed from "curiosity" to a normal attitude. It seems that the smoke brought by artificial intelligence has gradually dispersed, and the changes it has brought to society and industry will be forgotten over time.

I don’t know when it started, but we found that the recommendation of shopping websites is more and more in line with our wishes; The effect of taking pictures with mobile phones is getting better and better, and you can get satisfactory selfies without retouching; There seems to be less and less traffic jams on the roads of the Second and Third Ring Roads in Beijing during the morning rush hour. These scenes that we are used to, but secretly "get better", are inseparable from the support of artificial intelligence technology. As the saying goes, "moisten things quietly", just like most universal technologies, artificial intelligence is imperceptibly affecting our lives, and both academia and industry are stepping up research and development and layout of artificial intelligence technologies and applications.

In recent years, artificial intelligence is being favored by the market and society because of its ability to process huge, repetitive and complex data. Due to the universality of artificial intelligence technology and the diversity of realistic scenes, how to design a universal and easy-to-use artificial intelligence development model for different industries has become a hot spot in the field of artificial intelligence research and development. In the past two years, this field has attracted the layout of many internationally renowned technology companies including Microsoft, Google, Facebook, OpenAI and Huawei. In April this year, Tian Qi, the chief scientist in the field of Huawei cloud artificial intelligence, led the team to officially release the "Huawei Cloud Pangu Series AI Model".

Tian Qi, chief scientist in Huawei's cloud artificial intelligence field

According to Tian Qi, Huawei Cloud Pangu series AI big model (hereinafter referred to as Pangu big model) includes NLP (Chinese language) big model, CV (vision) big model, multi-modal big model and scientific computing big model, aiming at establishing a set of universal and easy-to-use artificial intelligence development models to empower more industries and developers and realize the industrial development of artificial intelligence. It has a strong generalization ability. By combining with industry knowledge, it can quickly adapt to different scenarios, and a small number of samples can also achieve high precision. Based on the industrialized AI development model of pre-training and downstream fine-tuning, it accelerates the application of AI industry and enables AI technology to truly empower different industries.

Recently, Tian Qi, the head of Huawei’s cloud Pangu model and the chief scientist in the field of Huawei’s cloud artificial intelligence, shared his deep thoughts on AI industrialization and the application of Pangu model with media reporters.

Launch a new model of industrialized AI development and build an AI ecosystem with partners.

Before joining Huawei, Tian Qi had been deeply involved in the AI field for many years: he graduated from the Department of Electronic Engineering in Tsinghua University in 1992, graduated from Drexel University in the United States in 1996 with a master’s degree, and then went to study at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the United States, where he studied under Professor Thomas S. Huang, an internationally renowned expert in computer vision, and received his doctorate. From 2002 to 2019, he served as assistant professor, associate professor and full professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Texas at San Antonio.

After joining Huawei in June 2018, Tian Qi became the chief scientist of computational vision in Huawei’s Noah’s Ark Lab. In March last year, he became the chief scientist of Huawei’s cloud artificial intelligence field. Thanks to many years of theoretical and practical research in the fields of computers and AI, Tian Qi has keenly discovered that artificial intelligence has entered a period of rapid development and prosperity driven by industry and capital, and at the same time, he has also seen various shortcomings of AI in large-scale commercialization. Among them, one of the biggest challenges of AI application is the fragmentation, customization and "workshop-style" development mode of AI application. Simply put, a scene needs to develop a model independently, and the whole process needs to be started from scratch and independently tuned. If the model can’t reach the expected goal, it will have to be reinvented, resulting in low development efficiency, and the development cycle often takes one month or even months. "Therefore, AI development urgently needs a new model to complete the transformation from workshop-based development to industrial development," Tian Qi said.

According to Tian Qi, the Huawei Cloud Pangu Model released in April this year is based on the industrialized AI development model of "pre-training+downstream fine-tuning", aiming at accelerating AI’s entry into thousands of industries and realizing inclusive AI. Pangu big model is based on big data pre-training and has strong generalization ability and small sample learning ability. This has achieved a breakthrough in performance and ease of use, that is, a model can be applied to a large number of complex industry scenarios, and a small number of samples can also achieve high accuracy.

Pangu big model is not an experimental model, but now it has landed in many industries and more than 100 scenes, including energy, retail, finance, industry, medical care, environment, logistics and so on. In the case of "Power Intelligent Inspection of State Grid Chongqing Yongchuan Power Supply Company", because most of the areas where Chongqing power grid is laid are hilly and mountainous areas, rivers and valleys, it is necessary to use unmanned aerial vehicles for intelligent inspection of power grid. Among them, the development of traditional intelligent inspection AI model of UAV faces two major challenges. One is how to label massive data efficiently; Second, there are hundreds of kinds of defects, which require dozens of AI recognition models, and the development cost is high. In order to solve the above problems, based on Pangu CV model, Huawei Cloud team used massive unlabeled power data for pre-training, and combined with an efficient development mode of fine-tuning a few labeled samples, put forward a pre-training model for the power industry, which skillfully solved the problem of data labeling. After the application of Pangu model, the efficiency of sample screening is improved by about 30 times, and the screening quality is improved by about 5 times. Taking Yongchuan as an example, 50,000 high-definition pictures are collected every day, and the manual marking time can be saved by 170 people/day. In terms of model universality, combined with the automatic data augmentation carried by Pangu and the optimization strategy of category adaptive loss function, one model can be adapted to hundreds of defects, and one model can replace more than 20 original small models in Yongchuan, greatly reducing the maintenance cost of the model, improving the average accuracy by 18.4% and reducing the development cost of the model by 90%.  

Helping the industry’s AI application ability to improve rapidly is the goal.

When talking about the position of Pangu big model technology in the same field, Tian Qi said that although many well-known overseas companies have devoted themselves to this track, Huawei Yunpangu big model still has its own unique advantages.

The first is technological innovation. Pangu NLP model uses Encoder-Decoder architecture for the first time, which takes into account the ability of NLP understanding and generation and leads the performance; The multi-task learning method is adopted to make the large model training more stable; Using Prompt-based, it has stronger ability in small sample learning. Pangu CV model has been extracted on demand for the first time in the industry, and the volume difference of the model extracted in different deployment scenarios can reach three orders of magnitude. Based on the comparative learning of sample similarity, the small sample learning ability is leading in the industry on ImageNet.

Followed by commercial verification. The technology developed by Huawei is producible and commercialized, and the Pangu model also integrates such genes. At the beginning of research and development, targeted development was carried out on scenes such as finance, intelligent customer service and intelligent investment research. "When we designed Pangu Big Model at the beginning, we hoped that it could get a better verification in some occasions, and hoped to drive a goal with commercial value." In Tian Qi’s view, the display of AI technical capabilities needs to be reflected in applications, and better empowering the industry’s AI application capabilities is the embodiment of the final results of Pangu Big Model.

Training AI with limited data is the current environment of AI industrialization.

When talking about his views on AI industrialization, Tian Qi said that the current AI industrialization field is in the early stage of industrial digitalization, and the application scenarios are very fragmented. Many scenarios still need customized development, and it is difficult to have a universal solution. In the face of such a dilemma, Pangu model has set a pre-training and fine-tuning method, so that the model can cover more scenes, and because the model is large enough, it has higher performance and stronger tolerance, that is, stronger generalization ability.

For example, in the financial field, industry experts need to spend a lot of energy every year to analyze corporate financial data and non-financial data, explore the means and motives of corporate financial fraud, identify corporate risks, and help corporate project audit. Due to the scarcity of industry experts, it is difficult to analyze the finances of thousands of companies in detail. In addition, due to the small sample size and extremely uneven distribution of data, traditional machine learning has been unable to accurately analyze the financial data and non-financial data of enterprises.

In order to improve the efficiency of industry analysis and reduce the manual workload, Pangu Model has trained a series of models for data differentiation, and then fused each model efficiently after training one by one. The trained Pangu model can identify 10+ major financial anomalies, 200+ minor abnormal signals, 6 types of fraudulent motives and 120+ fraudulent means.

Mental journey: from academia to business circles

As a typical representative of the transformation from academic circles to business circles, Tian Qi also shared his mental journey and views on AI with reporters. Before coming to Huawei, Tian Qi had taught in a university for 17 years, mainly studying large-scale image retrieval, pedestrian re-recognition, etc., and once achieved fruitful academic results: he became an Associate Editor; of many journals such as IEEE TMM, TCSVT, TNNLS, ACM TOMM, Multimedia Systems Journal, etc. He owns 6 American patents, has published more than 650 articles (including 181 IEEE/ACM journals and 191 CCF A conference articles) in top journals and conferences in computer vision and multimedia, such as IEEE TP AMI, IJCV, TIP, TMM, CVPR, ICCV, ECCV and ACMM, and has been cited by Google for more than 30,700 times, with an H index of 83. Eight papers have won the Best Paper Award or.

Tian Qi won the 2010 Google Facilities Research Award and the 2017 UTSA President’s Outstanding Research Award (one per year). In 2016, he was awarded the top 10 most influential scholars in the multimedia field and was awarded the IEEE Fellow. Later, he was selected as a national leading talent innovation project in 2018. Tian Qi is not only a chair professor or visiting professor at Tsinghua University Center for Neurocognitive Computing, Institute of Computing, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese University of Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Xi ‘an Jiaotong University, Nanjing University, xidian university, Dalian University of Technology, Southeast University, etc., but also a professor at the Yangtze River in the Ministry of Education, an overseas evaluation expert of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the China Academy of Sciences. At the end of May 2021, Tian Qi was elected as an academician of the International Eurasian Academy of Sciences.

As a top expert in AI academia, coming to the industry has given Tian Qi more opportunities to combine theory with practice and improved his knowledge structure. In his view, although the academia and the industry are different, the "Tao" is interlinked and both are pursuing the development of science and technology, but the academia pays more attention to the pursuit of theoretical research, while the industry pursues practical application. At present, the academic circles advocate the combination of Industry-University-Research, with the purpose of promoting the common development of theory and practice, providing more practical cases for academic development and providing more theoretical guidance for industry.

editorial comment/noteSince the appearance of Alpha Go, the game of Go seems to have jumped out of the circle of simply pursuing victory and defeat, and turned to pursue the real "formal beauty" of Go; In the same way, the existence of artificial intelligence helps people get rid of monotonous and boring work and pursue their own real value; The application of Pangu model will also help enterprises to reduce costs and increase efficiency, so that AI will benefit thousands of industries.

Eight typical cases involving "pornography" and "non-pornography" were reported: the live broadcast platform tricked hundreds of female anchors to perform obscene performances.

CCTV News:Today (April 14th), the National Office of "Combating Pornography and Illegal Publications" reported six key criminal cases and two online administrative cases, involving illegal activities such as live webcasting of obscene performances, launching obscene websites and apps, and deleting posts for profit by the online water army.

The six criminal cases reported this time are:

1. Tianjin "4 26" cross-border webcast platform organized obscene performances.

2. Jiangsu Suqian "1 06" Wang Motao and others spread obscene articles for profit.

3. Jiangsu Nantong Lin Moumou and others used the "Magic Cat" APP to spread obscene articles.

4. Zhang Moumou and others in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province spread obscene articles for profit.

5. Yunnan Huize Wang Moumou spread obscene articles for profit.

6. Anhui Anqing "network water army" series deleted posts for profit.

The two cases of administrative punishment are:

1. A network technology company in Shanghai engages in publishing online games without authorization.

2. The case of "Peach Live" spreading vulgar content in Jinan, Shandong Province.

Among them, Tianjin "4 26" organized an obscene performance case, criminal gangs built a cross-border live broadcast platform, and recruited more than 500 female anchors to perform obscene performances online. At present, 23 criminal gang backbones have been transferred for review and prosecution. In the case of "1 06" spreading obscene articles for profit in Suqian, Jiangsu Province, 14 criminal gangs have recently been sentenced to penalties, ranging from one year and seven months to ten years and six months. In the case of "Peach Live Broadcasting" spreading vulgar content in Jinan, Shandong Province, its actual operating unit was ordered to rectify, and the relevant anchor was banned according to law.

The relevant person in charge of the national office of "eliminating pornography and illegal publications" said that it will continue to maintain a high-pressure crackdown on Internet pornography and illegal publications, and severely investigate and deal with Internet enterprises and individuals that have serious problems in producing and disseminating obscene pornographic information in the "new wind" concentrated action, and crack down on criminals in the whole chain, and will increase the exposure of typical cases.

The well-known online celebrity anchor blew himself up with cancer, so be wary of these five situations.

Original Health 160 Shenzhen

Did everyone brush the hot search for the advanced thyroid cancer in Ti mo Feng a few days ago? She disappeared for half a year to have an operation, and now she has recovered.

Just when Xiaobian saw this hot search, I couldn’t help but feel awkward. Thyroid cancer? Isn’t it TOP1 in the list of new malignant tumors in Shenzhen in 2022, which was released not long ago?

This can’t be a good science popularization while it’s hot, and give our workers in Shenzhen a "shot in the arm"!

Let’s talk about the thyroid gland first. It is the largest endocrine gland in the human body, that is, the reddish-brown gland under the thyroid cartilage of our neck and on both sides of the organ, which looks like a butterfly.

Thyroxine secreted by it can regulate body metabolism, growth rate, sensitivity to other hormones, etc., and its range of action is almost all over the body. It is one of the most important hormones in the human body.

If thyroxine is too high, it will increase the load of various organs of the body, and there will be symptoms similar to fear of heat, persistent irritability, and rapid heartbeat. Moreover, in the state of eating a lot, the body shape will still not increase or even decrease.

On the other hand, if thyroxine is too low, the metabolic efficiency of the body will also decrease, and then there will be cold, fatigue, obesity, edema, constipation and so on.

Whether it is too high or too low, this unbalanced state has deviated from health. Ignoring it will easily lead to other problems in the body, and the worst situation in everyone’s cognition is thyroid cancer.

It is actually a relatively complicated process from physical problems to the development of thyroid cancer, and there are many closely related factors.

First of all, genetic factors are hard to avoid. If the immediate family members have thyroid diseases, the chances of the offspring getting sick will be three times higher than other people.

Take the past data of medullary thyroid cancer as an example, 5%-10% of patients have obvious family genetic history.

From the external factors, exposure to radiation as a child, long-term exposure to high pressure and tension, iodine deficiency and excessive intake of iodine are the major causes of thyroid cancer.

Our thyroid gland is sensitive to ionizing radiation, so interventional doctors will wear lead clothes and scarves to protect their trunks when working in a radiation environment.

In childhood, I received CT and X-ray radiation, and when I was not as strong as an adult, I was exposed to radiation, which would also cause some irritation to the thyroid gland.

It is also often heard that iodine deficiency will lead to "big neck disease", and goiter caused by iodine deficiency naturally has more obvious cancer risk than normal thyroid.

Coupled with the increasing social pressure, many people are basically in a state of nervous tension and emotional depression for a long time, which will easily lead to endocrine disorders in the long run and become a fuse for thyroid nodules and cancer.

At this point, many people "talk about the color change of nodules", but will thyroid nodules become fatal after they become thyroid cancer?

That may not be true.

Nowadays, science and technology are more and more developed, and the detection methods are more advanced and accurate. There is also a certain probability that the number of people diagnosed will increase on a large scale because of this.

Contrary to the rising speed of diagnosis, it is the development speed of thyroid cancer, which can be called tortoise speed.

The survival rate of patients with thyroid cancer is also much higher. The 5-year survival rate is basically at least 90%, and there are not a few people who have survived for 20 or 30 years. According to the doctor’s diagnosis, there is no big difference between their lives and ordinary people.

Apart from some genetic factors such as low immunity and hard resistance, many patients with thyroid cancer are not paid attention to at the initial stage of the disease, and only then will malignant factors lurk in the body waiting for the outbreak.

Take thyroid nodules as an example, the probability of benign is as high as 95%, and the size of the nodules is not necessarily proportional to the probability of canceration. The key point is whether the nodules are malignant or not, and whether they are properly intervened in time.

Xiaobian also sorted out some points that need attention. If the following results appear in everyone’s color ultrasound report, remember to focus on it:

① The thyroid border is unclear.

Tuyuan network

Illegitimate thyroid is a kind of nodule, which can indicate that the nodule is relatively active, but it is not necessarily equivalent to malignant nodule, and it needs to be judged according to further examination.

② Calcification of thyroid nodules

Tuyuan network

The report suggests that if the nodule presents sand-like calcification, it is also necessary to be alert to whether it is malignant, because about 80% of malignant tumors have calcification, which is a very important indicator.

③ Cystic solid nodules

Tuyuan network

Generally speaking, larger cystic-solid nodules need to be treated by surgery to avoid further oppression and malignant transformation, while smaller ones do not need surgical treatment, and most of them are benign.

In addition, many people are curious why this "lazy cancer" always targets women, and the incidence rate is three times that of men.

This is because female estrogen can affect the growth of thyroid nodules, and on this basis, some nodules become malignant and develop into thyroid cancer, so the large base leads to an overwhelming quantitative difference, which is not as mysterious as rumors.

Through the previous explanation, we can find that thyroid problems do not necessarily turn into cancer, and the cure and survival rate of cancer are relatively high, but we still have to pay attention to health.

Therefore, when other thyroid problems occur in the early stage, early treatment can kill thyroid cancer in the cradle to a great extent.

If you find these signs in your body, you should be alert:

Of course, these symptoms do not directly point to the thyroid problem, but when the thyroid is in a temper, there will be some corresponding symptoms. What we can do is to strengthen our body and take precautions every day.

① Preliminary registration inspection

If you have doubts about your thyroid health, you can go to departments such as endocrinology and thyroid, and you can also consult in detail if you need a doctor’s check and report analysis, so you don’t have to guess at random.

Click on the picture below to make an appointment with a famous doctor.

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Click on the picture below to make an appointment with a famous doctor.

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② Blood test

Blood sampling can help you understand the relevant indicators, such as three basic examinations and five examinations. The more items, the more comprehensive. If it is only a basic health screening, it is enough to choose three items.

③ Color Doppler ultrasound examination

If you want to confirm whether there are thyroid nodules, color Doppler ultrasound examination is the most intuitive and clear, and the size and echo can be known at a glance.

4 It is best to develop regular living habits every day, try to maintain a happy mood or learn to solve it, and properly supplement/avoid foods rich in iodine according to the system.

That’s the end of today’s popular science. In short, whether it’s hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, nodules or canceration, seeking help from regular hospital doctors and cooperating with treatment is the fastest way to embrace health.

The facts also show that most patients are relatively optimistic. If they are sick, they must first maintain a positive attitude for treatment, and then they should eat and drink, and don’t take things to heart. If you are unhappy and don’t understand, just come to the comment area to chat with Xiaobian.

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▍ Image source: giphy.com; Network. If there is any infringement, please contact to delete it.

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What do you mean by partner? What is a partner?

Partner, a new social relationship, is shallower than friends and more important than colleagues, focusing on precise companionship in a vertical subdivision field.

profile photo

Including but not limited to:

Rice partner: A rice partner with the same taste is someone who can eat together;

Conversation partner: if you lose contact after work, you are the person who chats with you;

Travel partner: people who travel together;

Movie partner: someone who goes to the movies with you;

Coffee and milk tea;

Take a nap;

Toilet set;

Actually, "partner" is not a dialect in a certain place, but a network language on the internet. "partner" should be a network language derived from the word "partner", which refers to people who partner with you in a certain field.

From fashion to fashion, the little black dress turned into a dark dress, and the regret and loss when Givenchy died at the age of 91.

Hubert de Givenchy (hubert de givenchy), the founder of Givenchy brand, died on March 10th at the age of 91. His family announced the news on Monday, which was later confirmed by the brand official. It was about ten years ago that the last time it caused such sadness in the circle of loving luxury goods and paying attention to fashion brands and even fashion industry.

In 2008, Yves Saint Laurent died in Paris after years of illness. At that time, the word "the fall of the master" was often used in media reports. Today, we finally have to add the word "the last" in front of it, not to praise or criticize the designers who are active now, but to "that era", which belongs to the most glorious golden age of haute couture, and is really over.

In the news I read these two days, there are always some things that bring bad emotions. First of all, nearly half of the articles were written on the wrong date of Mr. Givenchy’s death, and most of them were written on the 12th, that is, the date when the news was announced, and even some encyclopedic web pages were the same. Secondly, it is the positioning of "fashion master", and Givenchy may prefer to hear the words "fashion" and "design"; The last disappointment comes from Givenchy, a brand of the same name founded by him. After the so-called sad announcement of the brand’s death, some encyclopedia search pages have changed their personal homepages to black, while the official website of Givenchy brand has not only no eye-catching labels, but also the high-end ready-to-wear that has lost its elegant style in the last century is still rolling brilliantly.

I don’t know if the small emotions in the hearts of these fans are also a little regret when Mr. Givenchy left. After all, this French brand, which was once brilliant in the second half of the 20th century, deviated more and more from the style he once admired after John Galliano and Alexander McQueen left, and eventually became a "luxury" with a name.

Experience the golden age

It is undeniable that Givenchy still has many "explosions" today, and it is still fighting on the stage of haute couture. The last time the Chinese people watched it widely was in the Spring Festival Evening, when Faye Wong and Na Ying "held hands again". Na Ying wore Givenchy’s haute couture with the same earrings. Earlier, Givenchy’s explosive dog-head T-shirts, Bambi series, lambskin lipstick and lace mask on the make-up line were all paved by stars and fashionistas for a long time. Of course, among them, the greatest contribution is Degang Guo, who turned out to be a "brain-dead powder" and performed the "buyer show" of Givenchy’s various clothes.

However, these seemingly prosperous appearances may be welcome for an emerging fashion brand, but Givenchy was once so extraordinary after all, so the status quo can only be regarded as "nothing more" for it.

Everyone is the golden age of his favorite art, such as architectural style, editing techniques, contemporary art and so on, and so is fashion. Around the 1950s, it was the era of grand resurgence of "feminine style", and it was also the golden age of magnificent high fashion. Now, it is said that the design of that year is still not "outdated", just like in the past 2018 Academy Awards, rita moreno put on the "battle dress" on the night when she won the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress 56 years ago. At that time, it was the most beautiful, romantic, elegant and affectionate era of fashion in the whole world.

Among the designers who created that prosperous era, Ms. Coco Chanel, Dior, Balenciaga, Balmain, and of course, Givenchy, Valentino, Yves Saint Laurent&hellip, who once dominated the fashion circle before and after World War II; … All male designers, it was an era of "men create and control, women consume".

A lifetime of Parisian sentiment

Mr. Givenchy’s road as a designer is far smoother than that of his peers. There are no stories of hardships, turning points and luck to tell. What is special is the Parisian sentiment that this native Frenchman has been obsessed with all his life. "I learned the so-called Parisian sentiment in the book." Givenchy said more than once.

In 1927, Givenchy was born into a wealthy family in Beauvais, northwest of Paris, France, and his father was a mine owner. A well-fed gentleman was originally planned by his family to become a lawyer, but Givenchy insisted on being a designer and engaged in fashion. Of course, as we said, there are no twists and turns — — After all, for such a rich family, being a lawyer and being a designer are not bad money.

So, 17-year-old Givenchy left his hometown without hesitation and embarked on a long road to Paris. For young people who want to be designers, Paris has countless attractions. With the formal study of fashion production in Paris, like-minded friends began to appear around Givenchy. In fact, they will stand at the same height in the future. For example, Jacques Fath, a French master of haute couture in Givenchy, and Valentino, another famous apprentice, were among the students who went to school with him at Robert Piguet, Lucien Lelong and Elsa Schiaparelli, as well as Pierre Balmain and Christian Dior.

In 1952, Givenchy rejected Mr. Dior’s suggestion to cooperate with him and founded "the House of Givenchy", a handsome French gentleman with a height of 196, who began to dabble in fashion circles formally without even experiencing any waiting and silence. Just one year later, he became out of control on his favorite "Parisian sentiment" and quickly became famous. Of course, this is inseparable from the muse of his life, and it is also a lady who can’t help but talk about other things every time — — Audrey Hepburn.

Amazing time with Hepburn

Since he first met Hepburn at the age of 26, Givenchy has never left this topic in his life. Even in the last few interviews he received at the age of 90 in 2017, Hepburn was still an unavoidable theme, not only because they were close friends for more than 40 years, but also because it was the muse of his life creation, which inspired most of his design ideas in different time periods.

Because of the brevity of the message, Givenchy always thought that Hepburn, who was going to visit him, was the greatest actress at that time, katharine hepburn. "God, can I design clothes for her? Can I do it well? " Givenchy has been sighing in his memory. But in fact, as we all know, it was Audrey Hepburn, who was still unknown in France, who opened the door of his studio the next day. But it was only this meeting that Givenchy was completely fascinated by this beautiful girl with outstanding temperament. Of course, it was an appreciation beyond love. So he decided on the same day to meet all Hepburn’s requirements and take out the customized fashion to be used at the press conference as a prop costume in the new film "Dragon and Phoenix Match". This friendship began in this way.

Undoubtedly, Givenchy would like to thank this friendship, because a year later, Audrey Hepburn, who rose in Ran Ran, won the best actress in Roman Holiday at the 1954 Academy Awards, and made her debut in Givenchy dress for the first time, showing the brand to the world.

"We are friends who talk about everything. Audrey has achieved great success and honor that she never thought of, but she is still unassuming. This is her. I want to say a little thing that she is particularly touching. Sometimes the phone in my studio rings in the early morning, only three times at a time. I know it’s Audrey, and three times is ‘ I love you ’ Three words, and then she hung up. This not only reveals her cuteness, but also shows that he doesn’t want to disturb his friend’s work but still remembers your respect. " Givenchy never tires of talking about Hepburn, describing their past time and time again, showing his deep nostalgia and friendship for many years.

Givenchy once said: "True beauty comes from respect for tradition and admiration for classicism." Therefore, the 4G spirit, which represents gentleness, Grace, Gaiety and Givenchy, has become the indelible soul of the brand. And these are all based on Hepburn as a muse, gradually formed in the design again and again. Some people say that Givenchy created Hepburn’s quality and image. It is also said that Hepburn made Givenchy’s brand effect. In fact, these friends have never cared so much about these comments, because only they understand the tacit understanding that emerges from each other’s smiles.

In Hepburn’s film career, 80% costumes were designed by Givenchy. Among them, Hepburn’s Givenchy black dress in the movie Breakfast at Tiffany’s is the most famous. This skirt was bought back by LVHM Group, which belongs to the Givenchy brand, for more than 5 million RMB.

Ladies in Givenchy

In addition to personally creating custom-made clothes for Hepburn for nearly half a century, Givenchy’s aesthetics and design also influenced many modern, fashionable, exquisite and elegant ladies at that time, among whom there were naturally many equally outstanding figures. One of the most famous is Jacqueline Kennedy, the former first lady of the United States. After meeting Givenchy, she almost chose Givenchy’s works on every important occasion in her life.

Givenchy’s studio has personal clothing samples of every Kennedy woman. After the assassination of President Kennedy, the sad Kennedy family were all dressed in Givenchy costumes. Jackie Kennedy specially ordered a Givenchy dress for the funeral and flew it from Paris.

Grace of monaco Grace Kelly, who has an indissoluble bond with Hermes, is also a loyal fan of Givenchy. When she visited the White House in 1961, the green dress she wore was made by Givenchy. Wallis Simpson, Duchess of Windsor, also created a classic striped dress with her luxurious Cartier jewelry in 1966 by Givenchy.

Of course, more ladies who choose Givenchy are still unknown celebrities, ladies and fashion "fans", and Givenchy gives them back a design that changes the history of women’s fashion in the world — — "Split" ladies’ dress breaks the traditional aesthetic of women’s one-piece dresses. Finally, they can freely match up and down without the constraints of suits. Givenchy is good at using exaggerated colors, but the shape of clothing is very simple, which in a sense restores the elegance and nobility of high fashion, but at the same time gives fashion new ideas of the times.

Although Givenchy chose cutting-edge design style more than once, he still adhered to the soul of haute couture in the era when "ready-to-wear" became popular in the late World War II, and became a loyal guardian of haute couture in the best era of French haute couture. Guillermo Solano, artistic director of Thyssen Museum, the venue of its large-scale art retrospective exhibition in 2014, commented on Mr. Givenchy: "Mr. Givenchy is the last master of haute couture".

However, with the acquisition of the brand by LVMH, Mr. Givenchy officially retired in 1995. In order to pursue the market economy and realize the brand value, the Givenchy brand broke away from the ranks of haute couture for a long time. Although in recent years, with the increasing demand of high-net-worth people, the brand has returned to haute couture, but it is no longer the focus of the brand, but more a symbol of flaunting nature.

When Tisci took over as the chief designer of the brand, Givenchy moved from a little black dress to a "dark dress". Although the dark rock style also had a good response, it was far from the "classical and elegant" at the beginning of the brand. I wonder if this change will bring a faint regret to the 91-year-old man who died peacefully in his sleep.

● Editor: Zhao Yu

● The copyright of this article belongs to Family Business magazine.

It may take some time for the Internet lottery to "stop" online sales for more than one year.

  Internet lottery sales were stopped by the Ministry of Finance and other eight departments last year. How the rectification is going and when to restart Internet lottery sales have always been concerned by the market. At the same time, after the internet lottery was stopped, there were still some hot sales of goods with the nature of gambling on the Internet. For example, some websites launched "one yuan to buy" and "one yuan to win the treasure". Are these behaviors legal or not? What are the potential risks? Recently, our reporter conducted an investigation on the chaos, causes, risks and regulatory issues of Internet lottery, and welcomed lottery participants to participate in the discussion.

  — — Editor

  Online sales are banned, and lottery players are troubled.

  "You can sell train tickets and movie tickets online. Why can’t you sell lottery tickets?"

  "The Internet has penetrated into every corner of social life, and many industries are actively promoting it ‘ Internet plus & rsquo; Why can’t lottery sales add the Internet? " Many lottery players expressed doubts and incomprehension when it was mentioned that lottery tickets were not allowed to be sold online.

  In April 2015, the Ministry of Finance and other eight departments jointly issued an announcement, which clearly defined the use of the Internet to sell lottery tickets, and resolutely stopped and severely investigated all kinds of unauthorized use of the Internet to sell lottery tickets. Up to now, the Internet lottery has been "stopped" for more than a year.

  Ms. Wang, a marketer of an insurance company in Shanghai, is an "online shopper". Almost everything she eats at home is scoured online. She said that before shopping on Taobao, some merchants would send one or two lottery tickets to their old customers, wishing them a good win. Although a lottery ticket won 2 yuan, the merchants’ small thoughts are still quite warm.

  In Wan Hui Shopping Mall near Chaoyang Road, there is a lottery sales point. After shopping in the mall, many residents will also take out some change to buy some lottery tickets. "Buying lottery tickets can not only entertain ourselves, but also contribute to the welfare cause. We retired old buddies come here every now and then. However, if it is windy and rainy, it will be difficult for old arms and legs to go out. It will be more convenient if you can buy lottery tickets online or on your mobile phone. " An old man who is filling in the lottery number told reporters.

  Internet lottery sales stopped, and those who were most affected were the old lottery players. Mr. Zhang works as a business manager in a manufacturing enterprise in Northeast China and has been paying attention to lottery tickets for more than 10 years. He introduced that many old lottery players have their own research methods for choosing lottery numbers, and once this number is selected, they will often pursue it for many times. He travels all the year round, and he used to be able to buy lottery tickets on the Internet. Now he has to look for lottery stations everywhere in a strange city, and sometimes he is worried about missing the betting time, so he has to ask his family to remember to buy them. I put a lot of extra care into myself, but I have less fun buying lottery tickets. After a long time, family members also feel troublesome and even cause family conflicts. He told reporters: "I don’t understand. You can sell train tickets and movie tickets online. Why can’t you sell lottery tickets?"

  During the two sessions this year, some deputies suggested that sports lottery tickets and welfare lottery tickets approved by the government have become a part of people’s lives. Stopping the sale of lottery tickets on the Internet for a long time has not only brought a lot of inconvenience, but also encouraged underground lottery tickets, providing a living space for illegal interest channels.

  There are many scams and the risks are difficult to control.

  There are illegal phenomena such as "stealing and selling" and "stealing lottery tickets", and some lottery tickets are occupied and intercepted.

  In March and April of this year, some lottery players found that they could buy sports lottery and lottery tickets through some websites or mobile apps. This phenomenon has also attracted great attention from relevant departments. On May 24th, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Public Security jointly issued a notice, reiterating once again the strict investigation of online companies and other units and individuals using the Internet to sell lottery tickets without authorization.

  Then, why are the relevant departments not soft on Internet lottery sales? Can regular lottery tickets be sold online?

  "The way of selling lottery tickets on the Internet is virtual and networked, with high security risks and heavy social responsibilities. Countries all over the world are generally cautiously promoting and strictly supervising this." According to the relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Finance, lottery issuance is an important part of lottery supervision. China’s lottery issuance methods include physical store sales, telephone sales, Internet sales, self-service terminal sales, etc. The Ministry of Finance actively supports lottery institutions to continuously strengthen the construction of lottery channels, including exploring the use of Internet sales methods.

  According to the regulations, China Welfare Lottery Issuance Management Center and Sports Lottery Management Center of the State Sports General Administration, as lottery issuers, must be finally reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Finance before the specific implementation. So far, the Ministry of Finance has not approved any lottery agency to officially open the business of selling lottery tickets through the Internet.

  Changing the sales method to sell lottery tickets online requires the approval of the Ministry of Finance, which is due to the consideration of the security of lottery funds and the control of transaction risks. Selling lottery tickets online without authorization may lead to unimaginable risks.

  For example, is the lottery ticket that consumers buy through websites or mobile apps a real and effective regular lottery ticket or a scam of phishing websites? Did the lottery money really enter the national lottery fund pool? If one link can’t be controlled, it will harm the interests of lottery players, cause losses to the country and seriously interfere with the healthy development of lottery.

  In fact, in the past two years, there were indeed illegal phenomena such as "stealing" and "stealing lottery tickets", and some people were even listed as international "Hongtong" personnel. According to the investigation by the public security organs, from 2012 to 2014, Chen Mou, a Macao criminal suspect, collaborated with others to sell lottery tickets through the Internet without the authorization of the National Lottery Distribution Center. Among the sales betting orders it received, only 400 million yuan entered the lottery center system, and 100 million yuan was not issued through the lottery center system. The intercepted 100 million yuan lottery money is equivalent to "sitting in a private village". If someone wins the prize, they will win it privately, and the rest of the lottery money will be illegally appropriated by Chen Mou and others. According to the above criminal facts and conclusive evidence, the Guangzhou procuratorate approved the arrest of Chen Mou according to law. At the same time, Interpol China National Central Bureau issued a red notice to Chen Mou in time, and launched a global wanted notice. In November 2015, Chen Mou was forced to enter the country from Macau through Zhuhai Gongbei Port and surrendered himself to the Guangdong Provincial Public Security Bureau.

  The person in charge said that the issuance and sale of lottery tickets is not only a simple entertainment activity of "seeing luck and taking chances", but also must highlight the public welfare characteristics and responsibility concept of national lottery tickets. The relevant departments will "open the door and block the back channels" and carry out a pilot project of selling lottery tickets on the Internet and mobile phone clients in a unified way to ensure that the lottery tickets sold on the Internet are stable, orderly, safe and controllable.

  When online sales open, technology should be "cow"

  A unified online lottery management system should be established for real-time monitoring.

  Compared with traditional lottery sales methods, online lottery sales have the advantages of reducing distribution costs and improving operational efficiency, and social recognition is getting higher and higher. Statistics show that in 2014, national lottery sales reached 382.378 billion yuan, of which online sales reached 85 billion yuan, accounting for 22.2% of the total lottery sales. Although these online sales are not standardized, they account for more than 50% of the annual lottery sales increase. Many lottery players are concerned: When will online lottery sales be able to "open the gate"? What is the progress of related work?

  The reporter learned from the relevant departments that there were some chaos in online lottery sales in the past, mainly because the technical means of monitoring were not enough, which led to mixed fish and dragons and difficult to control risks. The idea now is to lay a solid foundation first and do a good job in the construction of the internet sales lottery management system. Using the Internet to sell lottery tickets, it is necessary to conduct unified management and real-time monitoring through the Internet lottery sales management system established by lottery issuers.

  At present, the construction of Internet lottery management system is in progress. On May 26th, the website of the Ministry of Finance published the Public Bidding Announcement on the overall marketing and promotion project of China Welfare Lottery Distribution Management Center by telephone and Internet. According to the announcement, the marketing planning of Internet sales welfare lottery and the output of related publicity materials will be completed by the end of October this year, in line with the subsequent listing and promotion of Internet sales welfare lottery. On July 4, the announcement of winning the bid for the overall marketing and promotion project of Internet sales welfare lottery was released, and People’s Daily won the bid of 5.18 million yuan.

  After the system construction and other related work are completed, welfare lottery and sports lottery issuers will submit market analysis reports and technical feasibility analysis reports to the Ministry of Finance, as well as technical testing reports issued by third-party professional testing institutions, and then apply for approval according to the prescribed procedures before launching the trial of selling lottery tickets on the Internet and mobile phone clients. It may take some time for these programs to go down.

  Some enterprises that want to try to sell lottery tickets online or on mobile phones believe that the progress of the Internet lottery system, what kind of enterprises can cooperate to sell lottery tickets, and what qualifications and conditions they need are the focus of social attention. Relevant departments should disclose relevant information to the public, clarify the industry access conditions and audit standards, let relevant enterprises prepare as soon as possible, participate in the competition openly and fairly, and promote the orderly development of Internet lottery sales.

  ■ Extended reading

  What are the lottery funds in China?

  According to China’s "Regulations on Lottery Management" and its implementation rules, relevant regulations of the Ministry of Finance, etc., the proportion of lottery funds is determined by the State Council, and the specific proportion of lottery bonuses, lottery issuance fees and lottery public welfare funds for each lottery variety is determined by the Ministry of Finance according to the decision of the State Council.

  With the approval of the State Council, the Ministry of Finance can determine the proportion of funds for specific lottery games within the scope of the bonus ratio not exceeding 75%, according to the demand for lottery issuance and sales and the characteristics of different lottery varieties. The proportion of business expenses of lottery issuing institutions and lottery sales institutions shall be drawn up by lottery issuing and sales institutions according to the needs of lottery development, and shall be reported to the civil affairs department at the same level or the sports administrative department in consultation with the financial department at the same level for approval before implementation.

  Lottery bonuses should be designed in a proportional way, that is, lottery bonuses should be extracted from lottery sales in a certain proportion. The proportion of lottery prizes should be within the maximum limit approved by the State Council and adhere to the principle of proportional reward. It is necessary to appropriately control the maximum prize amount of single-note lottery tickets, reasonably set the prize amount of lottery tickets, improve the winning surface of lottery tickets, and enhance the experience and entertainment of lottery purchase.

  In terms of the proportion of lottery public welfare fund, the lottery issuing institution shall reasonably draw up the proportion of lottery public welfare fund in the rules of lottery games according to the demand situation of lottery tickets and the characteristics of lottery varieties, which shall not be less than 20%.

  The proportion of lottery issuance fees should be reasonably drawn up according to the characteristics of lottery varieties, issuance scale and issuance methods.

  Since January 1, 2016, the proportion of traditional and instant lottery issuance fees has remained unchanged at 15% for lottery varieties approved by the Ministry of Finance; Lotto, digital, video, Keno lottery payment ratio of more than 13%, will be adjusted to 13%; If it does not exceed 13%, the proportion of its issuance fee will remain unchanged temporarily; If the proportion of public welfare funds for quiz lottery games is less than 20%, the proportion of distribution fees will be reduced by 2 percentage points. The above-mentioned reduction in the distribution fee ratio of lottery games shall be used to increase the proportion of public welfare funds for corresponding lottery games, except that 1 percentage point of the reduction in the distribution fee of Chinese welfare lottery two-color ball games is transferred to the game adjustment fund for returning prizes.

  (Wang Guan finishing)

  How to supervise lottery abroad?

  United States: In the United States, each state establishes its own lottery supervision and distribution institution according to the state constitution and lottery law. The highest supervision institution of lottery is the state lottery commission, and the lottery company is the direct management department of lottery in each state. Lottery tickets are sold through distributors. Lottery committees in most states are independent of the state government and are responsible for the interests of the people in the whole state. Generally speaking, the lottery committees in each state are mostly composed of elected members or governors and representatives of the people appointed by the state speaker, such as retired anti-drug police and retired certified public accountants. No salary is paid except for the reasonable expenses of performing duties, and the Committee itself does not receive any government funding. Internet lottery in the United States has experienced a process from prohibition to liberalization. At the end of 2011, the US Department of Justice changed the interpretation of online lottery sales, and completely loosened the Internet lottery. In 2012, Illinois became the first big state to offer online lottery tickets. At present, 12 big states have approved the expansion of lottery sales to the network field.

  Britain: The British national lottery is the largest lottery in Britain, which is approved by the British Parliament to raise funds for public welfare undertakings such as art, sports and charity. In Britain, there are four institutions jointly responsible for the operation and management of the national lottery, namely, the British Ministry of Culture, Media and Sports, the National Lottery Commission, the operator company and the national lottery fund allocation agency. The National Lottery Committee is the main management organization of the national lottery in Britain. It is necessary to ensure the integrity of all aspects of the lottery industry, protect the interests of lottery players and increase the amount of lottery public welfare funds. Through open bidding, it will issue business licenses to the winning companies to be responsible for their operations and supervise the national lottery. The operator company is responsible for the operation and management of the national lottery, including the design, production and sales of lottery products, and provides services for lottery players and winners.

  Singapore: Singapore implements a government franchise system for lottery tickets. In May, 1968, Singapore Lottery (Private) Co., Ltd. was established by the Lottery Authority under the Ministry of Finance of Singapore, with the purpose of cracking down on illegal betting activities by providing legal betting channels and benefiting the society with surplus income. The company implements a market-oriented operation mechanism in which the board of directors makes decisions, the management operates independently and is responsible for its own profits and losses. According to the regulations of the Singapore government, the company is required to pay gambling tax at 25% of the issuance income, and pay consumption tax at 7% of the issuance income after deducting the bonus. The annual net surplus income is turned over to the lottery management bureau for social welfare undertakings such as culture and sports.

  (Wu Tao finishing)